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    From the New York Times:
  • Everyone white is bad, donchaknow.

    You’re not even allowed to drink a bottle of white wine anymore!

  • From the New York Times: Both
  • “Sheeit, witches be too white, yo. Get outta here you busta-as Becky.”

  • Some may remember that in 2005 a major media controversy engulfed Harvard President Larry Summers over his remarks at an academic conference. Casually speaking off-the-record at the private gathering, Summers had
  • If you are interested in gender differences in intelligence and the likely cause, you might try reading “Smart and Sexy” by Roderick Kaine from Arktos. Basically, the premise is that the differences largely results from X chromosome linkage of intelligence.

    Hell, if you would be interested, I could probably have Arktos send you a review copy.

    https://mattforney.com/smart-sexy/

  • From The Atlantic: A suggestion for The Atlantic's editor Jeffrey Goldberg: You got your hands on a grand old brand name -- the founders of The Atlantic Monthly included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and John Greenlea
  • Well, the feminists are still trying to push their lies. No surprise there.

    Obviously, there are substantial differences in brain development. Testosterone, for example, plays an extremely important role during brain development at critical stages. Less appreciated is intelligence seems to be highly X-linked. The phenomenon of pseudo-dominance likely explains the large majority of greater male variability in intelligence and other behavioral traits. (Why are there, at the same time, so many more dumb and intelligent men than women?) You can find the answer in the very detailed book “smart and sexy” by roderick kaine from Arktos publishing. Here is a summary and pretty good review:

    https://www.counter-currents.com/2016/11/why-most-high-achievers-are-men/

  • Pity the poor blogger’s lot: there are more interesting papers being published every week than any essayist, however diligent, can possibly cope with. And there will be more, as the vast genetic databases give up their secrets. No sooner does one team scoop the others with a savage novelty than their rivals counter-attack with their...
  • @phil
    Res,

    Also note the importance of this issue for East Asians (slightly larger brain volume on average, but also smaller body size, so the brain-size difference is greater if we adjust for body size)

    East Asians (on average) are particularly good at 3D reasoning, which is also suspected to be a strength of males vs females.

    A good way to find interesting studies is to read one that you find interesting (say you hear about it on the news or something), and then any of the points in there that also looks interesting and has a citation should link you to another one. So you look that one up too.

    Reddit has a sub called /r/scholar. It has a link to a russian website called libgen which should have just about any study you could possibly want to read, and without the paywall. In the rare case they don’t have it, you can post a request to the sub and usually someone will add it to libgen or provide you a direct link.

  • @j2
    Atavisionary,

    You are right about fully recessive X linked gene alleles, then a woman expresses a trait only as homozygote aa while a man expresses the trait always. In this case (fully recessive allele), if the carrier frequency is p and the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, then me express the trait with probability p and women express it as about (1/4)p^2+(1/4)p^3. But this is not always true for X linked genes since there is X inactivation. Each woman's cell makes a choice which of the two copies of a gene to express. There are also two sections where X inactivation does not happen and both copies are partially expressed, but let us talk of the case when there is X inactivation.

    If the allele is nonfunctional, as can be the case with a gene allele causing severe mental retardation, the cells that express the non-fuctional gene are often excluded and the woman works with the functional genes. Then the recessive defect is not necessarily seen at all. Like, if in a woman brain half of the neurons were defective, the half good ones are quite enough for everything, no mental retardation is seen.

    But assume now that there are two functional copies and one is slightly better than the other. Both are used, but the effect of this gene allele is half of what it would be in a man where all cells have one allele. If the higher male variation of IQ were caused by X associated genes and they would be fully recessive, then the female variation would be extremely small. It is not so small, only a bit smaller than for men. Thus, these alleles are not fully recessive.

    Indeed, the majority of the variation of genetically determined IQ in both sexes must be due to autosomal genes. X related genes are only some 12% of all IQ related genes. It is not explanation of the variance, but a part of the explanation why male variance is larger than the female variance.

    I suggest this explanation. Because of a larger male brain size and because sex hormones give male brain a different structure (testosterone boosts spatio-visual ability and supresses female context switching, also called multiprocessing or inability to concentrate), males initially have a higher IQ, which is mostly decreased by X associated alleles (most mutations are harmful). Male IQ drops as low as selection allows and in humans assortative mating forces average IQs to be almost the same with a small male advantage.

    I wrote a post of this some time ago:
    http://www.pienisalaliittotutkimus.com/2018/04/20/men-inherit-male-intelligence-from-mom-but-not-the-iq-variance/

    The effect of testosterone is that in very early childhood babies have a huge number of neurons, which fast die. Testosterone level determines which cells die and this very old mammal/reptile mechanism gives males an advantage in visuo-spatial and females an advantage in taking care of offspring. As this is a very old mechanism and recently nature has preferred the X chromosome method over the Y-linked testosterone method for making sex differences, I would not look for very high mental capabilities from this direction. I wrote some time ago a post of it in:
    http://www.pienisalaliittotutkimus.com/2018/05/11/why-east-asians-have-iq-profile-skewed-to-visual-spatial/

    I basically agree with everything your saying.

    One thing though, it is very possible you are underestimating the number of genes involved in cognition on the X chromosome. Figures I have seen range from 10-20%, and if you consider known genes involved in mental retardation, 90 of the 300 link to the X, which is 23% of the total. And this is when the X only makes up 3.4% of the genome. My guess is that we aren’t finished discovering cognitively important genes on the X.

    Then there is the dosage. less genes could have a larger impact if the dosage for them is higher in the brain, insinuating that whatever they are doing is very important to mental function. Again, the X punches above its weight in this category. This is an excerpt from the book “Smart and SeXy”

    “Though there are an unusually large number of genes related to brain function on the X chromosome compared to individual autosomes, just looking at the number of genes actually underestimates the relative effect of those genes on cognition. One reason is because genes on the X chromosome are expressed at higher concentrations in brain tissue than they are in other tissues and relative to autosome gene expression within brain tissue. The ratio of expression levels between the X chromosome and theautosomes (X:Autosomes) was found to be greater than 1 (1.1– 1.2) in humans when all genes were considered. For tissues other than the brain, the ratio was less than one. The proportion of individual genes with double the level of expression in the brain relative to other tissues was 2.8 times greater for X chromosome genes than for autosomal genes in humans. 110 For brain-specific genes (a gene with double the expression in brain tissue compared to other tissues), the X:autosome ratio was 1.43 in humans. 78, 119 About 12 % of all X chromosome genes qualify as brain specific genes. In other words, it has been unambiguously demonstrated by several studies that the X chromosome contains regions with an unusually high density of genes expressed in the brain, and that many of those genes are expressed at an unusually high level in the brain compared to other tissues. 120”

    Kaine, Roderick. Smart and SeXy: The Evolutionary Origins and Biological Underpinnings of Cognitive Differences between the Sexes (Kindle Locations 1511-1514). Arktos Media Ltd.. Kindle Edition.

    The of course is the fact that the X chromosome genes involved are much larger than typical, and then the “junk” is cut out. It is very possible that regulatory RNAs are being produced with some unknown important function.

    As far as X inactivation, selective inactivation is mostly only relevant for mutations severe enough to harm cell viability. If the cell isn’t harmed in that way, then normal mosaicism ensues which quite closely approximates autosomal inheritance patterns.

    • Replies: @j2
    You write: "As far as X inactivation, selective inactivation is mostly only relevant for mutations severe enough to harm cell viability. If the cell isn’t harmed in that way, then normal mosaicism ensues which quite closely approximates autosomal inheritance patterns."

    It is exactly this which is the difference with X associated genes and autosomal genes. When the cell is not harmed in any way by either allele, X inactivation causes one copy to be expressed in every second cell of a female. That is, for normally working alleles of X associated genes you expect that women express both alleles 1/2 strength, while men express what they have.

    The new way (in the time scale of evolution) is to develop sex differences through the X chromosome, the old way was through the Y chromosome with the help of sex hormones. When talking of human intelligence (and not spatial-visual capabilities of all males, which is testosterone and hippocampus influenced, like the superios visual-spatial intelligence of East-Asians, ancient stuff) we have to look at the X chromosome for sex differences. You are completely right in this, we have to look at X in order to understand the larger variation of IQ in men. As both men and women have IQ variation, not all variation is due to X associated genes. There are many autosomal IQ genes. They must have a similar effect on both men and women and they explain a large part of human IQ variation, but here we are interested on sex difference in variation and average.

    I think average for both sexes is basically the same with a small male advantage, which is smaller than the brain size difference would imply. I explain it by male intelligence being volatile. It can sink or increase depending on how stupid men are accepted as spouses. And that is because IQ decreasing genes are expressed in males and there always are mutations creating them, so if women accept stupid men, there will be stupid men. Assortative mating has so far kept male intelligence from sinking below female intelligence, but it is just a custom.

    What I want to point out is that these X associated genes do not behave as recessive genes on autosomal chromosomes, that is, if some X chromosome associated genetic trait in men has the frequency p, it is not that women have the frequency about (1/4)p^2. They have about half of the trait in men and this is due to X inactivation. It is not so for very harmful gene alleles, but it is so for IQ genes, which each have a very minor IQ rising effect.

    Notice that having blue eyes is caused by a recessive allele. Why is it recessive? An allele becomes recessive if it is harmful. Thus, blue eyes gene was once harmful, like it is in albinos, it is associated with poor eyesight. Now there must be a compensating mutation because having blue eyes does not cause bad sight. This compensating mutation is not known to the cells, which conclude that the blue eyes allele is defunct, if they have a choice, they express the brown eyes allele. But after the compensating allele was created, there is really no difference with having eyes blue or brown. This is the way to think of recessive alleles. They are recessive because they do not do the original job, but a mutation elsewhere may compensate for the loss.
  • @res

    I have always been a little leery about the use of adjusting figures to body weight.
     
    Agreed.

    but in what context is that helpful?
     
    If you care about acceleration (or top speed) the Honda Civic might do better with much less power. Because of its smaller size.

    A bigger brain is going to think better.
     
    ceteris paribus. Which I don't think is necessarily the case here. But the only real body size correlate I see is with sensory and motor nerve interfacing. How much of the brain is dedicated to that? I am guessing not all that much?

    Then there are whatever other variables matter: architecture, structural integrity, ...

    This issue is one where my engineer side comes through. If adjusting for body size gives a better model fit (e.g. see TBV ~ VNR correlation comment above) then it seems reasonable to me to make the adjustment until we have theoretical justification to guide us.

    It would be very interesting to see a study similar to this which also measured things like myelination, neural conduction velocity, and whatever other variables we could come up with.

    I am not a big car guy, and that analogy might not be the best any way, but I am under the impression that if the goal is speed, then bigger engines built for speed do better than smaller ones built for speed. Ditto when you switch to torque.

    >It would be very interesting to see a study similar to this which also measured things like myelination, neural conduction velocity, and whatever other variables we could come up with.

    Studies of testosterone during fetal development suggest that it is very important for the development of white matter (myelination). And in fact, the larger male brain is largely driven by this increased amount of white matter. You always hear that women have more grey while men have more white. Well, that’s true after adjusting for size but in absolute terms, men and women tend to have about the same amount of grey matter, whereas men have much more white matter. (Obviously, male variability is in play here, but you get the idea.) Interestingly, Simon Baron-cohen has persuasively, in my opinion, shown that Autism is likely related to an excess of testosterone during fetal development and that their differences likely result from an extreme male patterned brain phenotype. Again, they tend to have more white matter than normal males.

    Autism appears at all parts of the IQ spectrum, and that is probably explained by an interaction between X-linked intelligence and fetal testosterone.

    • Replies: @res

    I am not a big car guy, and that analogy might not be the best any way, but I am under the impression that if the goal is speed, then bigger engines built for speed do better than smaller ones built for speed. Ditto when you switch to torque.
     
    Agreed about that, but the point I was trying to make is that the size (weight) of the body the engine has to drive makes a difference in the performance achieved. The question then is whether there is a similar size relationship for the brain/body.

    The pithy car guy (I am not much of one either, but have spent time in that world) version of your comment is "there is no substitute for cubic inches."

    In terms of the size/power (either HP or torque) relationship for engines (and brains) there is a reason HP per cubic inch is considered an important (though not all important) metric. It might be interesting to define an IQ/cc metric and do a GWAS on that.

    P.S. Interesting testosterone comments.
  • @res

    volunteers for brain scans brighter than average?
     
    Do you have any idea what the selection criteria were? Based on the age ranges: "MRI data from 5216 participants were available for the present study (mean age = 61.72 years, SD = 7.51, range = 44.23–77.12)" I was thinking they were looking for late in life changes.

    We can infer a bit from the Table 1 summary statistics for the VNR test.
    Mean (SD) - Females 6.80 (2.10), Males 7.14 (2.13)

    We can see VNR (Verbal Numerical Reasoning test) statistics for the full (well, 190k participants anyway) UKBB sample at https://biobank.ctsu.ox.ac.uk/crystal/field.cgi?id=20016
    Mean = 6.11557 Std.dev = 2.16093
    So the test actually has a fair bit of ceiling (> +3 SD) as long as it is accurate. Your speculation about the sample being brighter (for whatever reason) was on target. For reference scoring 9 is 90th percentile. Both 60th and 70th percentiles are included in a score of 7.

    https://biobank.ctsu.ox.ac.uk/crystal/graphs/c20016.png

    Regarding the correlation of brain size and intelligence test results. From Table S7 the correlation of TBV with sex (female=0) is -0.571. I think this decreases the apparent correlation of TBV and VNR for the whole sample. It would be interesting to see separate sex based correlations, or perhaps even better, a regression of VNR on TBV and sex.

    It would be interesting to also try looking at TBV normalized by body size and the relation of that to VNR.

    Here are some studies which compare brain size to IQ. Most found a correlation between .3-.5. So there is definitely something to it.

    154 McDaniel, M. A. (2005) Big-brained people are smarter: A meta-analysis of the relationship between in vivo brain volume and intelligence. Intelligence. 2005 Jul– Aug. Vol. 33 Vol. 4, 337– 346.

    155 Rushton, J. P., Ankney C. D. (2000) Size matters: a review and new analyses of racial differences in cranial capacity and intelligence that refute Kamin and Omari. Personality and Individual Differences. 2000 Oct. Vol. 29 Vol. 4, 591– 620.

    156 Wickett, J.C., Vernon, P.A., Leeb, D.H. (2000) Relationships between factors of intelligence and brain volume. Personality and Individual Differences. Vol. 29 No. 6, 1095– 1122.

    157 Brouwer, R. M., Hedman, A. M., van Haren, N. E., Schnack, H. G., Brans, R. G., Smit, D. J., Kahn, R. S., Boomsma, D. I., Holshoff, P. (2014) Heritability of brain volume change and its relation to intelligence. NeuroImage. 2014 Oct 15. Vol. 100, 676– 683.

    Kaine, Roderick. Smart and SeXy: The Evolutionary Origins and Biological Underpinnings of Cognitive Differences between the Sexes (Kindle Locations 4375-4384). Arktos Media Ltd.. Kindle Edition.

    • Replies: @res
    Thanks for the references. 154 looks like a good overview. One thing they find is that the single sex correlations are a bit larger than the mixed sex correlation (more so for women, for adults correlations were: all 0.30, M 0.34, F 0.38). This is the expected effect (if body size matters) I mentioned above. Though the change is not as large as I would have guessed.

    Does anyone know of any looks at the IQ vs. brain size correlation in humans that attempt to account for body size?

    This 2015 paper has a comprehensive table of studies they used in their meta-analysis: http://www.larspenke.eu/pdfs/Pietschnig%20et%20al_in_press_-_Meta-analysis_brain_volume_intelligence.pdf
    Might be useful...
    , @phil
    Res,

    Also note the importance of this issue for East Asians (slightly larger brain volume on average, but also smaller body size, so the brain-size difference is greater if we adjust for body size)

    East Asians (on average) are particularly good at 3D reasoning, which is also suspected to be a strength of males vs females.
  • @res
    This paper has an interesting look at detecting X-linked associations in GWAS using the increased variance for heterozygous females (because of the random aspect of X-inactivation). X-inactivation informs variance-based testing for X-linked association of a quantitative trait https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4381508/

    One interesting bit:

    Most GWAS studies of X-linked variants either ignored X-inactivation [12,30] or addressed it by simply changing the male genotype coding from 0/1 to 0/2, i.e. considering hemizygous males as equivalent to female homozygotes [13,28].
     
    Looking through the Lee SSGAC EA SNPs it appears they just ignored the X chromosome. Does anyone know for sure? Based on Figure 5 in the Hsu Compressed Sensing height paper I think the X chromosome is ignored there as well.

    I wonder if it would be possible to use the increased variance in males for X-linked associations to help detection.

    Does anyone know of any work assessing the different variances (and their relative magnitudes) resulting from homo/heterozygous females and males? Would it make sense to look at the different homozygous female and male alleles separately?

    That book, smart and sexy, has a short chapter on X-inactivation. One interesting thing is that Human X chromosomes don’t fully deactivate, one study found that up to 25% of the inactivated X in humans wasn’t completely deactivated, which was seemingly a lot larger than in the case of mice.

    >Does anyone know of any work assessing the different variances (and their relative magnitudes) resulting from homo/heterozygous females and males? Would it make sense to look at the different homozygous female and male alleles separately?

    Not sure about any gwas, but I do know that a female heterozygous for a trait on the X is very usually just like the homozygote dominant and thus the pattern for X linked traits in women is similar to autosomal inheritance. You can actually show that yourself at home by looking at rates of colorblindness. The percentage is pretty well documented, and if you plug it into the hardy-weinberg equation you find that only a very small number of heterozygous women show the color blindness trait due to X mosaicism. About .1% more women demonstrate colorblindness than would be expected if only homozygous recessive women had it.

    You can actually do a little math and see that you would expect greater variability in males than in females when there are dominant and recessive alleles for X linked genes. I quote a study called “A role for the X chromosome in sex differences in variability in general intelligence” Wendy Johnson,1,2 Andrew Carothers,3 and Ian J. Deary1

    Before focusing on general intelligence in a speculative way, it makes sense to review briefly the reasons that genes on the X chromosome can be expected to create greater variability in males in any trait they influence. This material is not speculative. The reasons have nothing to do with general intelligence per se. Males carry one X chromosome and one Y chromosome, whereas females carry two X chromosomes. The X chromosome is of medium size and contains 3.4% of the total amount of genetic material in the haploid human genome (McKusick, 1966; Skuse, 2005). In contrast, the Y chromosome is very small and carries little beyond the genetic instructions for maleness. This alone will tend to produce greater variability in males than in females. This is because males carrying alleles that are expressed in proportion to their presence in the genome will either present the trait or they will not. Female heterozygotes who carry one copy of each allele, however, will present some intermediate level of the trait, reducing their population variability. Males more often express traits from recessive alleles that are expressed only if unopposed. This is because males will express the trait at the level of the allele frequency in the population, whereas females will express it at the square of this frequency. For example, if the population gene frequency is 10%, the trait incidence in males will be 10%, but the incidence in females will be 1% (0.1 0.1). This also means less variability in females than in males. For dominant alleles that are expressed regardless of the other allele, males will express the trait at the level of the allele frequency in the population, but females will express it at a higher level. The maximum variance for both sexes will occur when the allele frequency is 0.5, and even then the male variance of 0.25, 0.05 (1.0 0.5), will be greater than the female variance of 0.188, 0.75 (1.0 0.75).

    So, if intelligence is X linked, and has a fair number of recessive alleles boosting it that gap between the number of males and females at the highest levels of ability could stack pretty large.

    If we do a thought experiment starting with the above example, 1 allele 10%, 10% of males would express that boost while only 1% of females. If there were two alleles both at that same frequency, then males expressing both would be at 1% and females would be at .0001%. As you add more genes, the frequency of appearance for both sexes decreases, but the rate of female appearances decreases much more dramatically. Now imagine 50 or 100 X-linked genes with recessive intelligence boosting alleles. In short, it isn’t a surprise at all why the highest achievers throughout history have almost all been men. However, it also isn’t a surprise when that rare very gifted female appears. Its all there in the genes, and statistics.

    • Replies: @j2
    Atavisionary,

    You are right about fully recessive X linked gene alleles, then a woman expresses a trait only as homozygote aa while a man expresses the trait always. In this case (fully recessive allele), if the carrier frequency is p and the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, then me express the trait with probability p and women express it as about (1/4)p^2+(1/4)p^3. But this is not always true for X linked genes since there is X inactivation. Each woman's cell makes a choice which of the two copies of a gene to express. There are also two sections where X inactivation does not happen and both copies are partially expressed, but let us talk of the case when there is X inactivation.

    If the allele is nonfunctional, as can be the case with a gene allele causing severe mental retardation, the cells that express the non-fuctional gene are often excluded and the woman works with the functional genes. Then the recessive defect is not necessarily seen at all. Like, if in a woman brain half of the neurons were defective, the half good ones are quite enough for everything, no mental retardation is seen.

    But assume now that there are two functional copies and one is slightly better than the other. Both are used, but the effect of this gene allele is half of what it would be in a man where all cells have one allele. If the higher male variation of IQ were caused by X associated genes and they would be fully recessive, then the female variation would be extremely small. It is not so small, only a bit smaller than for men. Thus, these alleles are not fully recessive.

    Indeed, the majority of the variation of genetically determined IQ in both sexes must be due to autosomal genes. X related genes are only some 12% of all IQ related genes. It is not explanation of the variance, but a part of the explanation why male variance is larger than the female variance.

    I suggest this explanation. Because of a larger male brain size and because sex hormones give male brain a different structure (testosterone boosts spatio-visual ability and supresses female context switching, also called multiprocessing or inability to concentrate), males initially have a higher IQ, which is mostly decreased by X associated alleles (most mutations are harmful). Male IQ drops as low as selection allows and in humans assortative mating forces average IQs to be almost the same with a small male advantage.

    I wrote a post of this some time ago:
    http://www.pienisalaliittotutkimus.com/2018/04/20/men-inherit-male-intelligence-from-mom-but-not-the-iq-variance/

    The effect of testosterone is that in very early childhood babies have a huge number of neurons, which fast die. Testosterone level determines which cells die and this very old mammal/reptile mechanism gives males an advantage in visuo-spatial and females an advantage in taking care of offspring. As this is a very old mechanism and recently nature has preferred the X chromosome method over the Y-linked testosterone method for making sex differences, I would not look for very high mental capabilities from this direction. I wrote some time ago a post of it in:
    http://www.pienisalaliittotutkimus.com/2018/05/11/why-east-asians-have-iq-profile-skewed-to-visual-spatial/
    , @res
    Good comment. One thought about

    I do know that a female heterozygous for a trait on the X is very usually just like the homozygote dominant and thus the pattern for X linked traits in women is similar to autosomal inheritance.
     
    My understanding is this is generally true for Mendelian traits. For quantitative traits I would expect the X linked traits to also be similar to autosomal traits except for the heterozygous case not existing for men.

    There are of course odd exceptions like calico cats. I don't know how many cases there are where the mosaicism is relevant phenotypically.

    The Johnson paper is interesting: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01168.x
    Thanks.
  • @res
    Thank you for the interesting paper and your analysis.

    It shows a massive sex difference in brain size of 1.4 d, and when one factors in that brain size relates to intelligence at a correlation of about 0.28, then the predicted intelligence difference will be a large 0.39 d, but the observed difference is only half that.
     
    I think part of that is attributable to body size. Table S1 adjusts the volume data for height. This reduces the TBV d to -0.42 (which overcompensates by your calculation giving an IQ d of 0.12 or 1.8 IQ points) and gives a VR of 0.84 (similar to 0.82 of full analysis).

    Using that VR to estimate relative IQ SDs (assuming male IQ SD is 15) gives
    0.84^0.5 * 15 = 13.75 which is close to your 14 number.

    I wonder if it would make more sense to map height to "weight" (e.g. using https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/ajhb.1310010412 - do this rather than actual weight to exclude impact of obesity) and then map that to the curve in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain-to-body_mass_ratio
    then use that number to adjust the brain volume data.

    The paper has 47 pages of supplemental material in a Word document. Some of the tables are just references to Excel spreadsheets at the OSF. I wonder why Table S2 was deleted: https://osf.io/w3u8e/

    Table S7. Correlation matrix for overall brain variables and cognitive variables
    is interesting. The correlations of cognitive variables with others are small. VNR (Verbal Numerical Reasoning) correlates 0.177 with TBV (Total Brain Volume). RT (Reaction Time) correlates 0.122 with VNR and 0.099 with TBV.
    7. General orientation dispersion is an intriguing outlier. It has opposite of the typical correlations (e.g. positive r with female) for all of the other variables.

    Could someone with expertise in brain anatomy comment on Table S12. Percentage mediation of the sex-cognitive relation for each brain subregion selected by the LASSO model, for verbal-numerical reasoning and reaction time? Superior temporal volume and surface area and Rostral middle frontal surface area appear especially important for VNR sex differences.

    Speaking of VNR sex differences, did the authors unpack V and N sex differences anywhere? That seems like a very interesting analysis to try.

    Figure S2a. Shift functions for each of the overall and subcortical variables. is a novel (this plot type was new to me) look at the distributional differences for all of the variables by sex.

    More on shift functions (including links to R code to create plots like this): https://garstats.wordpress.com/2016/07/12/shift-function/
    I need to try this out in some of my work.

    I have always been a little leery about the use of adjusting figures to body weight. I mean, you could adjust for weight in comparing the torque of a mack truck to a honda civic, but in what context is that helpful? Obviously, the truck has way more torque and is going to haul things better. A bigger brain is going to think better.

    • Replies: @res

    I have always been a little leery about the use of adjusting figures to body weight.
     
    Agreed.

    but in what context is that helpful?
     
    If you care about acceleration (or top speed) the Honda Civic might do better with much less power. Because of its smaller size.

    A bigger brain is going to think better.
     
    ceteris paribus. Which I don't think is necessarily the case here. But the only real body size correlate I see is with sensory and motor nerve interfacing. How much of the brain is dedicated to that? I am guessing not all that much?

    Then there are whatever other variables matter: architecture, structural integrity, ...

    This issue is one where my engineer side comes through. If adjusting for body size gives a better model fit (e.g. see TBV ~ VNR correlation comment above) then it seems reasonable to me to make the adjustment until we have theoretical justification to guide us.

    It would be very interesting to see a study similar to this which also measured things like myelination, neural conduction velocity, and whatever other variables we could come up with.
  • Interesting, I will have to take a closer look at this study when I get some time.

    The greater variability of males is explicable if you consider intelligence (and other behavioral traits) as being strongly X-linked. In other words, a lot of the genes influencing those traits seem to be on the X chromosome and because of the phenomenon of pseudo-dominance the same traits get expressed at different frequencies in men and women. If intelligence alleles are often recessive (both those that boost and lower intelligence) then men as a population should vary from the average more. The most commonly known trait that follows this pattern would likely be color blindness. The reason it affects men more is that the relevant gene is on the X chromosome. Now, you can imagine how other genes working on the nervous system and on the X could cause quite a different expression pattern in the population of men vs. women. If you are really interested in knowing more detail about this, you need to read “Smart and SeXy” by Roderick Kaine. This book goes into great detail about how it works, and has plenty of citations showing the intelligence does seem to be substantially X-linked. You can read a review of the book below:

    https://www.counter-currents.com/2016/11/why-most-high-achievers-are-men/

    • Replies: @res
    Thank you for that link. The book review was interesting in itself and the book sounds even more so.

    This was especially interesting in the context of my GWAS and X chromosome comment above:

    The X chromosome contains only about 3.4 percent of the genes in the human genome, but 16 percent of the genes known to be involved in IQ and 23 percent of those involved in retardation. Research on this point is ongoing, and these percentages may rise. But it is already safe to say that the overrepresentation of genes expressed in the nervous system on the X chromosome lies between a factor of three and seven.
     
  • A quarter of a century ago, Jared Diamond wrote a memorable magazine article, "
  • Ya, it doesn’t seem likely that native americans, or anyone else for that matter, had the ability or desire to mass genocide the thousands of species that went extinct world-wide, not just north america, at that time. Another, and in my mind more reasonable, hypothesis is that there was sort of impact event that occurred a little over 10,000 years ago. Specifically breaking up and hitting the ice sheets over canada. That is why there isn’t any craters left, and also why North America was most drastically affected.

    You can see my longer write up on this and some of the evidence for it here:

    http://atavisionary.com/did-ancient-humans-cause-the-mass-extinctions-of-mega-fauna-outside-of-africa/

  • Amy Wax is a tenured professor at the U. of Pennsylvania School of Law with a knack for low key
  • Not surprised the communists are going after her, though she has had hatethink out for a while so I am amazed they hadn’t started earlier. Here is a very good article she wrote basically debunking stereotype threat.

    http://atavisionary.com/study-index/intelligence-psychometrics-psychology/stereotype-threat-a-case-of-overclaim-syndrome/

    • Replies: @res
    Thanks for that link. It appears to be a book chapter. Any idea if the rest of the book is as good? The one star review at Amazon is encouraging ; )
    https://www.amazon.com/Science-Women-Christina-Hoff-Sommers/dp/0844742813
  • The Establishment is freaking out over one unknown Google worker circulating a
  • Ya, the gender disparity is almost completely or completely caused by sex differences and trying to “correct” it is a sissyphian task. I recommend the book “Smart and Sexy” by Roderick Kaine to get a very complete understanding of sex differences in intelligence and what causes them.

  • Here is a very interesting paper on sex differences in brain size and intelligence, notable for linking people’s brain scans with their detailed intelligence test results. It has been accepted for publication in Intelligence. Sex differences in brain size and general intelligence (g) Dimitri van der Linden, Curtis S. Dunkel, Guy Madison Abstract Utilizing MRI...
  • @Anonymous
    Yes, but there are no standardized tests to measure successful manipulating of others,
    self interested duplicity, and those other areas women tend to excel at.
    Since the invention of the Uzi and other light weapons, women should be half of a country's
    military force. But somehow they were smart enough to get out of that one.

    Graunt, the Vaunt

    Here is an article on the extreme male theory of Autism, which suggests that testosterone mediates how much a brain develops to handle systems as opposed to other people, and too much leads to autism. There is apparently some sort of trade off in being better at Machiavellian reasoning vs. systemizing reasoning and it probably has to do with testosterone in the womb. Normal male development is away from Machiavellian and towards systemizing.

    https://altright.com/2016/12/22/autism-and-the-extreme-male-brain/

  • A highly researched book on sex differences in intelligence “Smart and Sexy” by roderick kaine also elaborates on this finding which is available from an array of different studies. Broadly speaking there is, like you show, a small difference in the average that seems to be somewhere between 3-6 IQ points in favor of men. In addition men have a larger variance than women, which arguably is much more important in determining who counts among the highest achievers. The book makes a persuasive claim that this pattern is a result of intelligence being substantially X linked. Here is a review and summary of the book:

    https://www.counter-currents.com/2016/11/why-most-high-achievers-are-men/

    An interview with the author:

    https://redice.tv/red-ice-radio/smart-and-sexy-biological-differences-between-men-and-women