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The Army makes extensive use of simulation models to obtain data on the operational effectiveness of future capabilities to inform acquisition decisions. A key step in this process is understanding how the key performance parameters of a new system impact the system’s performance in the operational environment. This enables decision makers to set threshold and objective values of these parameters to provide to industry as system requirements. Another challenge faced with new technology is...
Topics: Design of Experiments, TRAC, LBC, simulation, models
Naval Postgraduate School
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Fast neutron detection is critical to the interdiction of illicit special nuclear material, among other potential applications. The use of heavy oxide scintillators to detect fast neutrons is one technology requiring little to no moderation and enabling construction of highly efficient detectors. Previous work qualitatively describes various physical modes of neutron interaction in these materials. This work simulates the interaction of neutrons in heavy oxide materials in order to quantify the...
Topics: fast neutron detection, inelastic neutron scattering, resonant neutron capture, heavy oxide...
Adversary activities in the information space represent a persistent threat to U.S. national security. This thesis claims U.S. information strategy lacks unity of effort and purpose and is also not optimized to adequately face modern threats. Case studies centered on Russian activity within the information environment will be explored and used to compare and contrast against current U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) information strategy. This provides focus for the core thesis question which...
Topics: United States Information Agency, USIA, Global Engagement Center, GEC, messaging, combat adversary...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Spada, Steven G.; Franco, Michael T.
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The Marine Corps is on the path toward the full-scale adoption of unmanned automated and semi-automated assets. These platforms will affect everyone in the chain of command—from the squad leader on the hilltop, to the platoon commander on patrol, and to the battalion operations officer overseeing all battlefield elements. Since warfare will remain an intrinsically human endeavor, the introduction of machines on the battlefield requires teamwork at all levels to ensure success on the killing...
Topics: UTACC, command and control, interdependence, interdependence analysis, unmanned aerial systems,...
The proliferation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) has contributed to the asymmetric threat of malevolent actors exploiting this technology for mischief or harm. Existing ground-based solutions are limited by line of sight, while human-operated responder drones can be less responsive and more labor-intensive. Hence, there is a capability requirement for autonomous vision-based pursuit and interception of unauthorized drones. To address this, the author developed a computer vision (CV)...
Topics: computer vision, object detection, object tracking, position estimation, navigation, trajectory,...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Sweeney, Robert J.
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The Section 809 Panel for streamlining and codifying acquisition was tasked with providing a recommendation to Congress regarding ways to streamline and improve the Department of Defense (DoD) acquisition system. As part of its final report, the 809 Panel recommends a transition from a “program-centric” to a “portfolio-centric” defense acquisition model. By aligning common requirements, the 809 Panel believes it can ultimately achieve acquisition efficiencies resulting in decreased...
Topics: Modular Open Systems Approach, MOSA, Open Systems Architecture, OSA, Future Airborne Capability...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Shi, Ronghua; Se, Xi Yang Ronald
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Verification of data-plane software is limited to verifying point properties such as bounded packet processing time or not misinterpreting malformed packet headers, which usually are chosen to illustrate the merits of some verification technique. Therefore, these techniques can be thought of as vertical verification techniques. There are, however, many other properties of interest that vertical techniques do not address, such as timing, which is important for verifying the correct behavior of,...
Topics: networking device, software generation, software engineering, symbolic finite automata, unicast...
This purpose of this research is to examine factors impacting Army Defense Business System Operations & Support (O&S) and Life Cycle hosting costs through the lens of Better Buying Power principles. Hosting is a significant cost driver of Defense Business System O&S and overall life cycle costs. This research identified the potential for significant program cost savings by utilizing commercial cloud service providers over government data centers with an acceptable level of risk....
Topics: Defense Business Systems, cloud hosting, life cycle costs, Better Buying Power
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Sale, Joshua
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The use of unmanned systems is a rapidly expanding component of operations aboard naval vessels and has the potential to significantly improve the onboard safety and efficiency. Because of the complexity of many shipboard environments, where humans and unmanned systems will be working simultaneously, realizing this potential will require precise and accurate robot localization. This thesis investigates the performance of a relatively low-cost, commercial-off-the-shelf, ultra-wideband (UWB)...
Topics: autonomy, autonomous systems, localization, ultra wideband, radio frequency, optoelectronic motion...
Despite literature that recommends fire departments in the United States implement best concepts to more rapidly access victims during active assailant incidents, the adoption of such concepts languishes. As the number of active assailant incidents in this country increases, fire fighters will be increasingly called to respond to incidents involving active shooters, vehicle ramming, and fire used as a weapon, regardless of policy implementation. For this thesis, representatives of seventeen...
Topics: active assailant, active shooter, rescue task force, best concepts, best practices, warm zone,...
Naval Postgraduate School
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Department of Defense acquisition life-cycle time frames can be improved through the use of technology transfer activities and industry partners, but only if increased rigor is applied to technology transfer processes. The application of systems engineering and systems architecture practices to current and previously described technology transfer methods has been studied in the literature, and new methodologies have been described. The result is an improved technology transfer process that...
Topics: systems engineering, systems architecture, technology transfer
Naval Postgraduate School
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This thesis analyzes the naval policies of the Soviet and Russian Federation navies, examines their various shifts in naval strategy, and provides implications for future U.S. naval strategy. During most of Stalin’s rule, the Soviet navy implemented a green-water naval strategy, focusing on coastal defense. Prior to his death, Stalin began to shift his navy, at least partially, to a blue-water strategy, concentrating on building his Black and Baltic Sea fleets. After Stalin’s death, Admiral...
Topics: Russia, Russian Federation, naval policy, Soviet Union, naval strategy, Navy, blue water, green...
The LOCUST program is a scalable system of inexpensive swarming unmanned aerial vehicles to provide disruptive capability in contested environments against anti-area access denial defenses, enabling manned strike operations and localized landing site superiority with reduced cost, risk, and operator launch and workload. Our research and analysis will emphasize the challenges of moving from a U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) effort to a large program of record. Specific supply chain...
Topics: supply chain, LOCUST, UAV
Naval Postgraduate School
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In 2013, a Government Accountability Report gap analysis on the state of joint professional military education (JPME) identified deficiencies in many areas that are critical to success in the defense support to civil authorities (DSCA) mission. This thesis utilized a case study methodology to discover the leadership qualities required of DSCA officers and ways that the Joint Qualification System could be modified to develop DSCA leaders. Cases of the downrange mission and the homeland mission...
Topics: DSCA, leadership, GNA, Posse Comitatus, Katrina, Sandy, JQS, JQO, OPMEP, DSC, JPME, S-JDA, E-JDA,...
Naval Postgraduate School
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Solar and wind power generation suffer from intermittency. Consequently, renewable-powered microgrids require a traditional electrical grid or an energy storage system to fill the power gaps. Liquid air energy storage (LAES) is a promising method for scalable energy storage. LAES systems combine three mature technologies—cryogenics, expansion turbines, and induction power generation—into a system of systems. The resultant behavior of this complex system is difficult to predict through...
Topics: liquid air energy storage, microgrid, ASPEN, HYSYS, Linde cycle
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Tate, David A.
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Military training recently has come under review in the face of numerous service member non-combat deaths. Many of these incidents have catalyzed major changes in procedure and training, but in response to the lesser known USS Mahan shooting incident, the naval small arms training program was not scrutinized. Therefore, this thesis will investigate the following research question: Does Navy handgun training bestow the acquisition, retention, and proficiency of small arms skills necessary to...
Topics: handgun, training, skill acquisition, skill retention, skill sustainment, simulator, motor skill,...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Valenzuela Balderas, Diego Emmanuel
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In order to determine best practices in response to a continually changing security environment, this research assesses how the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and ISIS-inspired terrorist attacks carried out by the group’s terrorist cells and self-radicalized individuals have affected the independent and collective counterterrorist efforts of Spanish and French security agencies. Identifying the evolution of and outlining proposals for refining Spanish and French anti-ISIS...
Topics: Spain, France, ISIS, Mexico, counterterrorism, jihad, terrorist attack, intelligence,...
The Department of Justice (DOJ) is the primary federal funding source for state, local, and tribal law enforcement departments throughout the United States. In recent years, there has been a call to address the risks associated with traditional vehicle pursuit methods. The adoption of pursuit management technology has been identified as an effective and beneficial alternative to established kinetic methods. The established methods are defined by contact with the pursued vehicle that does result...
Topics: pursuit management technology, pursuit alternative technology, Department of Justice funding, JAG...
Naval Postgraduate School
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Particulate materials (amorphous, athermal substances such as dry grains, foams, emulsions, and colloids) are commonplace in industry and defense, second only to water in their ubiquity. These materials can transition from solid-like to liquid-like in unexpected ways, with failure in one section of a large system rapidly leading to failure across the entire system and giving rise to significant consequences in phenomena as disparate as impact resistance, geological fault interface behavior,...
Topics: granular media, soft matter, yielding, critical scaling, finite size scaling
Naval Postgraduate School
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Department of Defense test and evaluation (T&E) is a specialized field that has unique challenges. Acquisition professionals in T&E positions rely on slow, antiquated, “by-hand” methods based on heuristics to estimate test durations, costs of testing, and risks associated with different factors of their test programs and how each will impact the overall test effort. The research questions in this thesis are: 1) How could Marine Corps Systems Command (MCSC) benefit from incorporation...
Topics: test, planning, tool, testing, scheduling, T&E, cost estimation, optimization, automation
The Navy has identified a need to exploit the benefits of artificial intelligence, particularly in the realm of common tactical picture (CTP), combat identification (CID), and battle management aids. Of grave concern to the Navy is the CID of unknown unknowns or things that are not known to exist or can be easily tracked. Artificial Intelligence, and related machine learning, deep learning, and deep analytics tools, provides a technology that can be used to assist commanders in processing...
Topics: artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, deep analytics, combat identification,...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Witmer, Deborah L.
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Vulnerable populations suffer disproportionate impacts in disasters. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)’s whole-community approach addresses this disparity in the emergency planning process. An inclusive planning process is needed to operationalize FEMA’s whole-of-community concept. This thesis focuses on public engagement as foundational to inclusive planning. This research first analyzed whether prior research translated into useful whole-community planning processes in large...
Topics: vulnerable populations, older adults, people with disabilities, emergency management, inclusive...
Naval Postgraduate School
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The focus of this thesis is to assist MARFORRES G-4 in developing relevant measurable system attributes and corresponding value models to better articulate the contributions of the SMAT inspection program to the MARFORRES mission. The thesis developed a stakeholder-derived objectives hierarchy that reflects the SMAT inspection program's role in the MARFORRES mission and identified measurable system attributes that evaluate the degree that the SMAT inspection program supports the MARFORRES...
Topics: value model, attributes, SMAT inspection
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Adesanya, Kehinde A.; Shivashankar, Santhosh K.
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Within the human-machine relationship, distrust can arise. The Department of Defense utilizes automation, autonomous systems, and artificial intelligence to reduce cognitive workload and improve mission capabilities; however, adoption rates of autonomous unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) remain low. This thesis asks how human distrust of machines and machine learning relates to adoption rates. First, we identify trust components by building upon a model created by Gari Palmer, Anne Selwyn, and...
Topics: trust, understandability, autonomous, autonomy, transparency, adoption, unmanned, quantitative, USV
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Carter, Ian
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Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging technology that has already proven useful to the Marine Corps. However, guidance regarding AM and structure for the organization of AM efforts in the Corps has lagged behind the real-time capabilities of this technology. This thesis examines current AM capabilities and current Marine Corps structure, policy, and guidance regarding the use of AM technology. A systems engineering approach is used to propose a path forward for the Marine Corps with regard...
Topics: additive manufacturing, AM, 3D printing, DOTMLPF, logistics
Naval Postgraduate School
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Heuristic analysis can reveal honeypots (decoy computer systems doing intelligence gathering) among Internet-connected industrial-control sites. Detectability of honeypots is undesirable, as it enables a careful adversary to avoid them, thus inhibiting valuable intelligence. However, counting honeypots is crucial to cyber-security policy and planning activities. Using a data set that includes industrial-control sites and industrial-control honeypots on the public Internet, we tested three...
Topics: honeypot, cybersecurity, cyber-deception, industrial-control
Naval Postgraduate School
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Policing is at a critical point in its history, with ever-increasing expectations on law enforcement and evidence of mistrust among the communities they serve, particularly in communities of color. Negative encounters between police and community members are symptoms of mistrust, sometimes manifesting in acts of violence both by and against police. Trust and willingness to comply with police are linked to the community’s perception of legitimacy in the institution, which is reduced when...
Topics: procedural justice, legitimacy, trust, implicit bias
U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) alert-duty pilots are allowed to sleep during their 24-hour rotation, but may be awakened unexpectedly and required to perform complex tasking in a short period of time. Upon waking, these pilots may experience sleep inertia, a state of lowered arousal associated with decreased performance. Factors contributing to sleep inertia include heredity, age, sex, fitness, diet, and sleep history. Evidence suggests there may be viable methods to mitigate sleep inertia, including...
Topics: sleep inertia, sleep inertia reduction, alert duty standers, watch officers, commanding officers,...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Bischoff, Greg
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Software-defined radios (SDRs) are used in many communications applications and offer flexibility in designing a communication network by offering rapid configuration changes after the radio is already produced. This is of interest in the small satellite industry, where small, lightweight, low-cost, and programmable radios will be needed for a wide array of upcoming missions of increasing complexity. Previous Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) research has produced a C-band SDR payload in a 1U...
Topics: X-band, SDR, software-defined radio, CubeSat
The Military Child Care Act of 1989 and subsequent policies related to military childcare programs offer installations multiple options for providing childcare services to their supported communities. While the Presidio of Monterey (POM) has provided childcare services to the POM military community using the on-post Child Development Center (CDC) and Family Child Care (FCC) program for over two decades, it has never evaluated whether this is the most efficient option to provide these services....
Topics: military child care programs, Presidio of Monterey, Child Development Center, cost benefit analysis
Delivering on the power of data to ships in austere or contested environments requires careful consideration of system capacity, bandwidth, and processes to drive capability. Ship-based and shore-based applications and processes must be married into a system that progressively improves own-ship algorithms in real time and fleetwide algorithms in near real-time. Once this operational picture is achieved, system readiness becomes a known value and a decision aid rather than a set of derived...
Topics: machine learning, artificial intelligence, data, operational availability, readiness, combat...
Naval Postgraduate School
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This thesis compares Chilean and Argentine civil-military relations (CMR) after each country’s democratic transition from military rule. Specifically, by considering the cases of Chile and Argentina, two countries that presented very different levels of CMR directly after democratic transition, this thesis identifies and evaluates the tie between the traits of the previous military regime, military negotiation power, and CMR development. To assess this relationship, this thesis analyzes the...
Topics: civil-military relations, CMR, Chile, Argentina, democratic transition, democratic civilian...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Borden, Timothy G.
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This work explores the response to the global war on terror during the last decade in the nation of Poland. Specifically, it examines how visions of the country’s nationhood have been used by the leaders of the country’s dominant political party, Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, or PiS), in conjunction with real or imagined terrorist events to gain power and further its political agenda. This effort is examined in the context of one particular element of Polish nationhood,...
Topics: terrorism, European Union, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Poland, Eastern Europe, Central...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Bofman, Wesley G.; Maniego, Fernando
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This project reassesses and expands on a simple fingerprinting method for Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) routers, and extends that methodology to Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) routers. The initial methodology, developed by Vanaubel, Pansiot, Merindol, and Donnet, utilized initial time to live (iTTL) values derived from Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo-reply and TTL exceeded messages. The current project used ICMP echo-reply and destination unreachable/port unreachable,...
Topics: IPv4, IPv6, ICMP, ICMPv6, initial TTL, initial Hop Limit, fingerprinting, router signatures,...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Alisa, Rasida; Kotwicki, Mark A., II; Marbach, Peter J.
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The United States Marine Corps (USMC) Expeditionary Energy Office (E2O) needs to conduct an analysis of small unit power requirements. This study assesses both current and future (approx. 2024) small unit configurations, and the impact that operational conditions and tactical scenarios have on power requirements, beyond a straightforward reference to technical data. This analysis accounts for potential changes to the USMC force structure, as well as technological changes that alter access to...
Topics: USMC, small, unit, power, IPOWER, idea
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Fabros, John
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In 1992, Mexico’s government embarked on an ambitious set of land reforms targeting the ejido system, a semi-communal land administration system applicable to approximately 50% of the country’s surface area. The ejido, a largely rural institution stemming from the 1917 constitution structured to alleviate grievances about unequal land distribution that had helped trigger the Mexican Revolution, had by 1992 become a byword for poverty and underdevelopment. The neoliberal-oriented reforms...
Topics: land reform, land titling, development, conflict, credit access, tenure security, Latin America,...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Davis, Brandon A.
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This thesis analyzes the role of the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) as an instrument of Russian soft power in the Putin era. Soft power is a means to attract allies and support for a nation’s objectives in foreign policy. Russia has a dwindling number of soft power weapons, with the ROC being one of its most remaining prominent soft power assets. The relationship between the ROC and Kremlin is nuanced, both gaining legitimacy and authority from one another. They share a similar conservative...
Topics: Russian Orthodox Church, ROC, orthodox, Georgian Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Orthodox Church,...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Cybert, Matthew W.
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School violence is a consistent problem that cannot be underestimated by government and school officials. Though pervasive and ever-changing, current school safety initiatives are not always effective. This thesis explores how schools can take advantage of a dog’s therapeutic and security instincts to improve existing school safety initiatives. To assess fittingness, the thesis first explores research that indicates there is an evolutionary bond between humankind and dogs, which—when paired...
Topics: therapy dogs, animal therapy, comfort dogs, human-animal bonds, animal assisted programs, companion...
Naval Postgraduate School
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In view of increasing urbanization worldwide, it is expected that many future military operations will occur in urban environments. To conduct an urban operation effectively, the dismounted warfighter requires real-time situational awareness. Yet, delivering this information during such an operation can be difficult as communication links are weakened by infrastructure and transmission distance is reduced. To address these challenges, the research applies a system architecture process approach...
Topics: unmanned system, mesh network, urban operation, communication
This thesis studies the network performance of the Robot Operating System (ROS) 2 when used in a network of nodes similar to how a group of unmanned assets would operate. Specifically, this thesis evaluates the impact of combining varying Quality of Service (QoS) and security settings in the ROS 2. It also explores the effect that scaling to multiple nodes has on network performance. This is the first work to comprehensively study ROS 2 network performance using QoS and security classification...
Topics: ROS2, Robot Operating System 2, NS3 network simulator, QoS, quality of service, network performance
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Dunn, Brian J.
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This thesis considers the nature of power and influence in the U.S.–Ethiopia relationship. U.S. government policymakers in Ethiopia should consider the agency of the political elite in Ethiopia, as well as the domestic “levers of power” within the Ethiopian state. While the chief executive is the critical actor in Ethiopia, he is not immune from domestic and international pressures. The United States maintains an active and wide-reaching bilateral relationship with the Ethiopian...
Topics: Ethiopia, security, policy, Africa, power, influence
Naval Postgraduate School
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Current tactical microgrids range from dozens of diesel generators to small solar panels. Projected operational concepts greatly reduce the size and change the mission of these bases from the previous paradigm. With more mobile basing, the integration of novel control architectures based on efficiency presents an opportunity for greater operational endurance from reduced fuel consumption and smaller physical footprints. To form these microgrids, diesel generators have been used for decades and...
Topics: generators, efficiency, droop control, optimization, tactical power
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Deem, Ryan; Greeney, Ryan J.; Keller, Gary M.; Wang, Jay Y.
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This project defines specific program manager (PM) responsibilities, PM authorities, and acquisition stakeholder authorities based on Department of Defense (DoD) acquisition policies and Army regulations. It maps PM processes, revealing the conflicts and issues with existing definitions, and identifies opportunities to improve the Army acquisition process. Selected primary documentation of DoD and Army regulations, DoD and Army directives, specific program acquisition documentation,...
Topics: program manager, acquisition process, responsibilities, authorities
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Day, Michael D.
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The corrections enterprise is wholly unprepared for mass casualty incidents (MCI). Prisons regularly experience incidents involving inmate violence; these events can quickly escalate into an MCI that overwhelms the prison’s ability to respond and overload local medical systems. Despite numerous prison-related disasters, the corrections enterprise remains disengaged from national emergency preparedness efforts. Further complicating the issue is the lack of corrections-specific emergency...
Topics: mass-casualty, prison, emergency management, planning framework
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Aljaber, Abdulkarim Rashed T.
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As the military has moved toward network-centric operations, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become increasingly valuable for capturing real-time information for joint operations on the ground. These UAVs contribute to the mission by conveying the scene accurately to the decision maker. However, because of constraints in free space, using MANET with UAV nodes in free space that has no pre-existing infrastructure poses a network latency problem. Latency reduces network efficiency when...
Topics: mesh network, MANET, latency, throughput, UAV, network architecture, DSR, free space, network...
Naval Postgraduate School
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The Army and the Department of Defense (DoD) have a desire to bring extended reality (XR) technologies into both the training and operational environments. Augmented reality (AR) technology has moved to the forefront of this effort. This study had two goals. The first was to determine if humans have an instinctual preference in reacting to real or rendered objects while operating in an XR environment. The second was to determine whether military members have been conditioned, through training,...
Topics: XR, AR, real vs. rendered, human preference
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Good, Jeffrey E.
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In September 2017, two Category-5 hurricanes struck the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) within a period of two weeks causing massive devastation to homes, businesses, and infrastructure. These storms deposited over 660,000 tons of debris on roads and also created mudslides, rock slides, sinkholes, and washouts that blocked surface transportation for months. The damage to surface roads caused significant last-mile distribution problems that affected the ability to distribute disaster relief supplies...
Topics: supply chain, transportation, network flow, optimization, U.S. Virgin Islands, hurricane, hazard...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Gon, Casey J.
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Two month-long experiments were performed to evaluate wave transformation across a rough rocky reef at Hopkins Marine Station, Monterey Bay, California. Outside of wave breaking, approximately 30% of the measured wave energy flux by sea and swell waves was dissipated over 140m. The bottom roughness of the rocky reef is defined by the standard deviation of bottom vertical variability (σb) and is 0.9 m. The energy dissipation, 〈εf〉, is related to bottom friction resulting in energy friction...
Topics: wave energy dissipation, bottom friction, rocky reef, wave transformation, wave breaking parameter,...
After three collisions and one grounding of U.S. Navy warships in the Seventh Fleet in 2017, the Vice Chief of Naval Operations (VCNO) directed a Comprehensive Review (CR) of all significant surface force mishaps between 2007 and 2017 with recommendations to improve the Surface Fleet. The CR findings identified areas for improvement with themes such as teamwork, operational safety, assessment and culture. One recommendation, 8.3.2.3, serialized as CR53, directed the comparison of two Flight I...
Topics: NSWW, Navy Standard Workweek, Naval Availability Factor, NAF, Comprehensive Review, CR, CR53,...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Funni, David A.
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In order to fly autonomously, micro air vehicles (MAV) must understand the surrounding three-dimensional environment. Due to size, weight, and power constraints, the collection and processing of environmental data must be done in the most efficient way possible. Biological and neurological research on insect vision has led to computationally inexpensive techniques for detecting the relative distance to objects. In this thesis we will develop and test an efficient implementation of these...
Topics: unmanned, MAV, optical flow, computer vision, monocular vision, EMD
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Honecker, Grant O.; Minneman, Michael T.; Parrott, Dylan O.; Saalwaechter, David M.
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As the U.S. Navy continues the development of the Medium Displacement Unmanned Surface Vehicle (MDUSV), a doctrinal shift of the surface fleet necessitates examining potential manned-unmanned teaming mission sets within the construct of Distributed Maritime Operations. Utilizing systems engineering for architectural development, discrete-event simulation, and analysis, this capstone report evaluates MDUSV performance of an intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, and targeting mission in...
Topics: MDUSV, medium displacement unmanned surface vehicle, manned-unmanned teaming, MUM-T, intelligence...
Naval Postgraduate School
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Preparedness agencies fail to act on gaps identified by exercises; instead, they repeat exercises and never move to resolve issues. After-action reports document exercise findings, but are not shared with forward-facing staff who do the work. Agencies spend federal money exercising capabilities, but fail to implement changes recommended by exercise evaluations. Yet some agencies are able to report successful after-action events and document improved capability performance. This thesis...
Topics: after-action, AAR, improvement plan, exercise, change management
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Hinton, Maximilian
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This thesis examines economist Paul Romer’s charter city model as a mechanism to improve governance, through the lens of the case study in Honduras. It builds on development theory and studies of special economic zones to contribute to the limited scholarship on the program. Romer’s idea represents a novel approach to development, but its theoretical foundation leaves room for troublesome application. Honduras embraced Romer’s model at first but altered several of its key features, to the...
Topics: charter cities, Honduras, Paul Romer, ZEDE, RED, ciudades modelos, model cities, startup cities,...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Harman, Keenan S.
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The research objective of this thesis is to continue the modernization efforts of the Naval Postgraduate School’s transonic compressor test rig. The current transonic compressor rig, used for testing, research and development, was built in the 1960s and operates using a compressed air turbine drive. A new design that is more efficient, more robust and less maintenance-intensive will utilize an electric drive train as the prime mover. The project is building a new rig based on the designs of...
Topics: transonic compressor test rig, transonic compressor, compressor test rig
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Anderson, Laura G.
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Space is becoming increasingly congested and contested as small satellites, to include CubeSats, are launched in greater numbers. The Space Systems Academic Group at the Naval Postgraduate School purchased an advanced commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) telescope from Meade Instruments (model LX600) with the goal of tracking CubeSats and as an educational tool for postgraduate students. This thesis specifies a plan, based on research and proof-of-concept testing, for NPS to create an automated...
Topics: satellite, tracking, telescope, software, CubeSat
The threat that Islamic jihadists pose to U.S. security is often highlighted in political debates and media commentary; however, U.S. citizens who have no affiliation with foreign terrorist organizations commit the vast majority of violent attacks within the United States. Violent extremists are becoming more common, and researchers believe the ideology and mental health of lone violent individuals is different from that of group-organized political terrorists. To address this growing threat to...
Topics: school shooter, mental health, life safety, prevention, right wing extremist, persecution,...
Naval Postgraduate School
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Why does the United States continue to threaten NATO cohesion while pressuring the Federal Republic of Germany to increase its military strength and capabilities? Discord is highly evident among U.S. policy, words, and actions in what appears to be a burden-shifting problem. This thesis attempts to achieve three goals: (1) to assess whether the president fits best against the rational actor, bureaucratic politics, or organizational process theory; (2) whether the president is burden-sharing,...
Topics: United States, Germany, burden, sharing, shifting, foreign, policy, military, Bundeswehr,...
Naval Postgraduate School
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Trust in artificial intelligence is an important field of research influencing developments such as autonomous cars, aircraft, the employment of drone swarms, and military decision aid tools. Understanding trust between humans and artificially intelligent systems will help accelerate decision-making cycles, inform better system design, and avoid automation bias or under-utilization of intelligent systems. Using the Hoff and Bashir model of trust in automation as a theoretical foundation of...
Topics: artificial intelligence, autonomous systems, intelligent systems, network control system, trust...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Kanth, Vikram K.
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As the threat of cyber attack grows ever larger, new approaches to security are required. While there are several different types of intrusion detection systems (IDS), collaborative IDS (CIDS) offers particular promise in identifying distributed, coordinated attacks that might otherwise elude detection. Even for this type of IDS, there are unresolved issues associated with trusting participants and aggregating data. Blockchain technology appears capable of addressing those issues. This thesis...
Topics: blockchain, hyperledger, secure communications
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Kakande, Denis Paul
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In 2005, after a two-decade war, South Sudan signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement that led to independence from the Republic of Sudan in 2011. However, in December 2013, the country sank into another civil war when troops loyal to President Salva Kiir clashed with those loyal to the dismissed vice president, Dr. Riek Machar. The reasons for the outbreak of the civil war include but are not limited to a weak and divided governing party (the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement or SPLM), an...
Topics: South Sudan, peace agreements, civil war, conflict, warring factions, Agreement on Resolution of...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Johnson, Bonnie W.
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This dissertation presents a theory for complex adaptive systems of systems (CASoS) as a new class of systems that can be engineered as solutions to highly complex problems. The exponential growth in technology, demands from a warfighting community to rapidly address operational challenges, and dynamic, highly complex environments overwhelm traditional engineering approaches. This study followed a grounded theory methodology. Thorough examination of systems and complexity theory knowledge...
Topics: complex adaptive systems of systems, systems theory, systems engineering, grounded theory...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Kirbyson, Frank R. III
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This thesis contributes to the debate regarding the Department of Defense's assessment that the Russian Federation possesses an \"escalate to de-escalate\" strategy. This research approaches the question through analysis of official doctrine, statements, nuclear capabilities and military exercises of the Russian Federation following the Cold War. The Russian Federation develops weapons for the employment of nonstrategic nuclear weapons and exercises the use of nonstrategic nuclear...
Topics: nuclear, Russia, escalate, de-escalate
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Kidd, Jessica M.; Franing, Nicole V.
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This project examines the performance outcomes of procurements using definitive responsibility criteria (DRC) as special standards of responsibility consistent with FAR 9.104-2 to determine if the DRC are worthwhile. Contractor Performance Assessment Reporting System (CPARS) reports were compared for heavy construction projects procured via invitations for bids (IFB) that included DRC and that did not include DRC. The project also includes non-statistical examples of outcomes with data grounded...
Topics: contractor responsibility, heavy construction, IFB
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Kennedy, Sean M.
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In this thesis, a three-stage algorithm for performing unsupervised segmentation of hyperspectral imagery is developed and tested. Based on a data-model derived from common sources of error inherent in all imaging spectrometers, each stage of the algorithm leverages modified clustering methods that incorporate both the spatial and spectral information present within the hyperspectral scene. The ultimate output of the process is a classification map that groups spatially adjoining pixels into a...
Topics: hyperspectral, image, segmentation, clustering, k-means, hierarchical agglomerative clustering,...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Angert, Svetlana
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Blockchain technology promises to revolutionize supply chain management and may improve the international trade environment as well as compliance and enforcement capabilities. Because blockchain technology is still developing, the government has an opportunity to collaborate with the trade industry and to explore the technology’s capabilities. This thesis examines the first proof of concept (POC) blockchain implementation by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and provides...
Topics: blockchain, customs clearing, standards, interoperability, emerging specifications, digital ledger...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Larson, Douglas F.
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China is currently the second-largest film audience market in the world and is set to surpass the U.S. market by 2020. China’s lucrative market is controlled by Beijing’s state, which permits only the release of films that place China in a positive light. Meanwhile, China has nefariously sought U.S. technology through spying, specifically targeting the space industry where China has emerged as the strongest competitor to the United States. This thesis examines China’s intentions of...
Topics: soft power, sharp power, emerging threat, China, Hollywood, film
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Kvitchko, Terrence
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Previous work on a subset of the internet has identified a number of unique behaviors in ICMP timestamp responses. In this study we expand to studying the entire routable IPv4 address space, surveying ICMP timestamp responsiveness and the prevalence of specific response behaviors. We introduce a new behavior called \"uptime\" to the existing behavioral classification taxonomy. Additionally, we combine banner-grabbing scan data with our ICMP response classifications to evaluate the...
Topic: ICMP
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Kui, Jie Ren
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In recent years, Southeast Asia (SEA) has seen many of Islamic State’s (IS) supporters returned home after fighting in the Middle East. The tactics and warfighting knowledge that they have learned, such as the making of homemade rockets and IEDs, could actually be applied in SEA as well, causing SEA to be a high potential as the next cauldron of violence. This thesis will investigate the effectiveness of laser weapons under the conditions of rain or haze. Laser propagation in these...
Topics: High Energy Laser, laser propagation, environment
Naval Postgraduate School
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This project will examine the operational and mission availability of ships deployed with an integrated additive manufacturing (AM) capability. The purpose of this research is to determine the best option with regard to operational availability, mission availability and total ownership costs to the Navy. The objectives of this project will include a comparative analysis based on three separate scenarios that will seek to compare the operational impact cost against the total ownership cost for...
Topics: AM, additive manufacturing
Naval Postgraduate School
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The latest breakthroughs achieved by various commercial companies in applying neural networks to games have led to research in applying such technologies to the military domain. This thesis uses a proxy stochastic simulation environment to identify the factors required to train a neural network via reinforcement learning to maneuver forces in a battlefield and overcome hostile forces. An incremental training approach was used to train the neural network to recognize the enemy first, before...
Topics: neural network, course of action
Naval Postgraduate School
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The past three decades have seen a significant increase in suspects using weapons, which had not been readily available to the public, and which are more lethal. When suspects are better armed and more skilled with their weapons and tactics than officers, law enforcement’s disparity of superiority leads to death and injury. For example, on October 1, 2017, the Las Vegas Massacre resulted in 58 people killed and more than 850 people injured. The entire incident lasted 10 minutes with the...
Topics: relative superiority, North Hollywood Shootout, Pittsburgh, Las Vegas mass shooting, tactical...
Terrain is an important factor for autonomous ground vehicles (AGV), potentially ruining a mission or the platform itself. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a method for an AGV to identify and avoid hazardous terrain. This work builds on a previously developed system that uses artificial potential fields to avoid obstacles and navigate to a goal. Terrain was identified by developing a random forest machine-learning algorithm, classifying terrain as hazardous or traversable. The random...
Topics: terrain classification, machine learning, random forest, unmanned ground robot, computer vision,...
With the increasing prevalence of and dependency on smartphones, it is critical to understand how the sensor data collected from their users is used and shared. This thesis investigates the homeland security risks associated with smartphone-sensor data collection and sharing. Publicly available technical specifications, open-source documents, and published studies were used to evaluate how smartphone data could be used to threaten the security of the homeland. This analysis reveals that...
Topics: smartphone, sensor data, data privacy, data collection, cyber security, homeland security, data...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Lyon, Jason D.
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Natural and man-made disasters have altered the public safety paradigm by contributing to an increase in firearms sales, gun-carrying by the public, and a general relaxation of the rules of engagement in which citizens may employ deadly force. These conditions have made the landscape in which police, fire, and emergency services work potentially more dangerous. This thesis addresses how public safety agencies should evaluate and respond tactically, operationally, and strategically to the...
Topics: Hurricane Katrina, Sandy Hook, gun-related, firearms, convergence
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 McDonough, Bryan P.
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With a strong nuclear arsenal, rapidly expanding Navy, and increasing economic influence, China is quickly turning into a peer adversary that matches the United States’ military and economic strength. Strategies must be developed and analyzed that effectively curb Chinese aggression. Jeffrey E. Kline and Wayne P. Hughes, both professors at the Naval Postgraduate School and retired Navy Captains, developed the “War at Sea Strategy,” which relies heavily on U.S. submarines creating a...
Topics: combat simulation, random search, directed search, South China Sea, East China Sea, Poisson Scan...
Naval Postgraduate School
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This capstone explored options for two different communications architectures in support of a distributed maritime operation (DMO). Those architectures were the star and wireless mesh networks. The purpose of the scenario models developed for this study was to help give the reader a better understanding of how the tightly coupled data type, data rate, and desired network capabilities impact the network design. This study evaluated each architecture against a variety of assets in the scenarios...
Topics: joint fires, DMO, distributed maritime operations, systems engineering, reef island, mesh networks,...
Naval Postgraduate School
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The USMC Expeditionary Energy Office is funding the partial development of the Intelligent Power Optimization with Environmental Reactivity (IPOWER) simulation model to provide a tool to commanders and program managers for making energy-informed decisions. IPOWER allows leaders to predict power requirements for dismounted units and assess how equipment parameters affect power consumption. To facilitate testing and analysis with IPOWER, a software wrapper was built that enables users to...
Topics: expeditionary energy, energy logistics, IPOWER, Expeditionary Energy Office, E2O, dismounted power,...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 McMurrey, William B.
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The Iran–United States relationship is often described by U.S. leaders as an intractable, zero-sum problem. In this view, the solution is to collapse the Islamic Republic by military threats and unyielding economic pressure. Since 1979, presidents of both parties have pursued this two-tool campaign with similar results. This research explores the prospects for breaking the characterization of United States–Iran relations as an intractable conflict and seeks more likely avenues for ending...
Topics: United States, Iran, rapprochement, intractable conflict, zero-sum problem, hostility,...
Naval Postgraduate School
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This research answers the following question: How does the United States improve economic recovery to mitigate the impacts a disaster has on a community? The thesis examines existing literature and insight from subject-matter experts to determine how the nation can improve economic recovery after a disaster to mitigate the overall impact on communities. Using the Delphi methodology, subject-matter experts from different levels of government, as well as the business sector, answered questions...
Topics: economic recovery, disaster, FEMA, mitigation, resiliency, Delphi, social capacity
Naval Postgraduate School
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Over 109 years after the United States swore in its first female officer, women still constitute only 13.3 percent of law enforcement personnel. Women have always been, and continue to be, a minority in law enforcement careers. The numbers are disproportionate because female officers face challenges that negatively affect gender equality in law enforcement career paths. These challenges involve law enforcement culture, gender perception, gender role expectations, balancing motherhood, and a...
Topics: women, policing, challenges, culture, mothers, parenting, under-representation, recruiting, hiring,...
U.S. Navy crews were sharply reduced following the Optimal Manning Initiative of 2003. Extensive research from the Crew Endurance Team at the Naval Postgraduate School suggests that Sailors work extremely long days with little time for rest as a result. After multiple mishaps in 2017, the Navy conducted a Comprehensive Review that directed various actions be taken. One of those directives was to compare two ships, one with normal crew and one with an augmented crew, to explore how manning is...
Topics: Naval Availability Factor, NAF, Navy Standard Work Week, NSWW, Comprehensive Review 53, CR53,...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Miyakawa, Alexander S.
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In future conflicts, the United States Marine Corps will augment the capabilities of the individual Marine with autonomous vehicles able to traverse a wide range of terrain. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the ability of an autonomous ground vehicle to use two-dimensional (2D) down-looking Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) to avoid low-profile obstacles. The robot performs three primary tasks: localization, obstacle detection, and control. Optical flow sensors and a Global...
Topics: navigation, ROS, LIDAR, autonomous, robot, terrain classification, ground vehicle, MATLAB, laser,...
Naval Postgraduate School
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This research provides an analysis of sustainment metrics and their application by product support managers (PSMs) within the context of the Army's operational sustainment review (OSR) process. The research explored the Department of Defense and Army guidance regarding metrics utilization for weapon systems. The research also details the OSR process and its relevancy as a method to consistently and repeatedly analyze metrics. The metrics used by PSMs in their respective OSRs were analyzed for...
Topics: product support manager, PSM, operational sustainment review, OSR, Army, department of defense,...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Newman, Sean A.
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This thesis analyzes the nuclear motivations of three states (Japan, India, and Pakistan) and asks whether Japan may acquire nuclear weapons moving forward. The analysis found that, for Japan, nuclear restraint stemmed from U.S. security guarantees, which supplemented a mercantilist national strategy. With Japan secure, the country could pursue an economic policy, which made nuclear acquisition costly and counterproductive. India’s nuclear acquisition, on the other hand, was driven both by...
Topics: Japan, nuclear, proliferation, Pakistan, India
Naval Postgraduate School
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How has the existence of North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) reduced freedoms in democratic South Korea (Republic of Korea)? Exploring what effect the North has had on freedoms in the South post-democratization, and the association between the threat from North Korea, whether the left or right is in power, and the degree of freedom restrictions in South Korea, is useful for better understanding the ROK’s domestic and security policies. This thesis explores how the existence of...
Topics: North Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, South Korea, Republic of Korea, freedom, civil...
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Orr, Marilee
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How many Teslas will it take to crash the Los Angeles, California, grid? This thesis conducts a thought experiment to explore whether rapid adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) in Los Angeles will reduce the reliability of electric power in the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) service territory. Federal and state regulations are encouraging the shift to electric transportation in support of policy priorities that include reducing greenhouse gas emissions and reducing dependence...
Topics: EV, BEV, electric vehicles, resource adequacy, electric power, grid, reliability, LADWP, Los...
The existing methodologies used by law enforcement to manage crowd events to ensure public safety do not adequately address current protester-on-protester violence. Outdated methodologies, based on classical crowd psychology, may increase the chances of violence between crowd groups. Case study analysis using soccer hooliganism as a proxy for intergroup protest violence demonstrates the relevance of modern crowd psychology in this new protest paradigm. This thesis finds that law enforcement...
Topics: public safety, soccer hooliganism, football, social identity theory, elaborated social identity...
Law enforcement leaders protect and serve citizens using various enforcement models, such as community policing and evidence-based policing. Another method is the formation of formal partnerships among chiefs and key community stakeholders with the purpose of building public trust and reducing crime. This study aims to answer the question: “How do local law enforcement agencies structure successful partnerships that earn public trust and contribute to crime reduction?” Using six police...
Topics: partnerships, police, private, sector, relationship, formal
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Peterson, Christopher J.
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This thesis develops a methodology and novel metric for the design, verification and validation of microgrids for resiliency objectives. A systems engineering analysis identifies the microgrid function as providing power to facilities to enable mission accomplishment. Microgrids can meet the need of Department of Defense (DoD) facilities to continue missions by providing power for critical loads when utility power is lost. Previous research and existing tools for microgrid design and assessment...
Topics: microgrids, risk analysis, systems architecture, reliability, verification, validation, resiliency
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Pendino, Stephanie R.
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Blockchain technology has the potential to improve the areas of additive manufacturing, supply chain management, and many others within the Navy. An anomaly detection scheme that characterizes blockchain parameters as normal or anomalous using statistical analysis and hierarchical clustering methods was developed in this thesis. The histograms, probability distributions, and boxplots of the data were used to estimate thresholds for outliers that may indicate attacks. The thresholds obtained...
Topics: blockchain, k-means, hierarchical clustering, anomaly detection
Naval Postgraduate School
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This thesis analyzes the political responses of Ecuador and Bolivia to the economic crisis in Venezuela. The primary question I have sought to answer is why the Ecuadorian and Bolivian governments have realigned politically or continue to embrace Hugo Chávez’s Bolivarian policies. Ecuador and Bolivia were among many countries that elected leftist populist leaders influenced by Chávez’s success and are among the few Latin American countries that still have a leftist government. Methods...
Topics: Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, Bolivarianism
This study explored the impact of the materials employed, particularly electrode material, on the performance of Novel Paradigm Supercapacitors (NPS). The main experimental focus was on the impacts of changing the identity of the electrode materials in Novel Paradigm Supercapacitors employing Distilled Deionized water (DI) or DI with 3.5 wt % dissolved NaCl. In sum, it was determined that i) some metals too easily corrode in this application (e.g., silver and lead) to be functional for more...
Topics: capacitor, dielectric, SDM, novel paradigm supercapacitors, supercapacitors
Naval Postgraduate School
Nov 19, 2019 Rogers, Alexis L.; Sowers, Ryan
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Buffer overflow and heap overflow injection attacks have been studied for some time. Recent techniques to prevent execution of payloads inserted into memory have been successful by using stack canaries, non-executable stacks, and address space layout randomization (ASLR). Attackers now use a technique called return oriented programming to maliciously execute code without ever inserting such a payload into memory. They do so by identifying binary snippets in the original program that constitute...
Topics: buffer overflow, return oriented programming, ROP, gadget, return instruction pointer, stack...
Naval Postgraduate School
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The structural fire environment is hazardous and challenging to firefighters who are operating in unknown locations with zero visibility. Many firefighters lose spatial awareness and get lost, leading to inefficient operations as well as deaths and injuries. This research was designed to reveal which technology has the highest potential to provide interior navigation for firefighters in such an environment. This thesis used the exploratory research method to identify and appraise existing...
Topics: technology, indoor navigation, public safety, emergency management, firefighting, situational...
Naval Postgraduate School
Oct 22, 2019 Thomas, Donald Irving
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The purpose of this study was to examine the causes of unauthorized absenteeism among the enlisted personnel of the postwar U.S. Navy, and, on the basis of these findings, to determine some measures which appeared to be effective in reducing absenteeism. This involved three major problems: 1. To determine what types of enlisted men committed unauthorized absence offenses and why they committed them. 2. To examine the underlying reasons for absenteeism from psychiatric and sociological...
Naval Postgraduate School
Oct 5, 2019 Pollman, Anthony
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This report presents the results of a study into Marine Corps organizational culture. This report is being submitted to the Naval Postgraduate School’s Senior Marine in partial fulfillment of the requirements of an Executive Masters in Business Administration program. Organizational culture consists of all of the taken for granted values and underlying assumptions that characterize an organization and its members (Robbins & Judge, 2012). It is the tie that binds an organization together...
Naval Postgraduate School
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This paper will analyze current manned launch and recovery systems across all naval surface platforms and present recommendations for improving these systems to be more adaptive to launching both manned and unmanned ocean vehicles. Specifically, this research will focus on minimizing the heave motions exhibited by the vehicle during launch and recovery. To achieve minimized heave motions and improve operational performance, an analysis was conducted to determine the feasibility, performance,...
Topic: Unmanned Vehicles, Launch and Recovery
Naval Postgraduate School
Sep 25, 2019 Sponseller, Aaron P.
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Planning for maintenance periods for U.S. Navy submarines is difficult due to schedule and cost constraints, operating cycles, and logistical concerns. Organizational maintenance and failure data is vital to understanding trends of failures among the various classes of submarines. This thesis investigates the processes by which maintenance and failure data is collected, analyzed, and administered throughout the planning process.
Naval Postgraduate School
Sep 25, 2019 Washko, Jon Matthew
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Maintenance of United States Navy submarines is a complex set of operations comprised of scheduling, budgeting, and executing a continuous stream of work across multiple vessels in the same maintenance facility year after year. Local personnel are involved in the details of the day to day operations and focus deeply on today and tomorrow, with little bandwidth to focus on larger, systemic issues with impacts far removed from today. The addition of fluctuating annual funding levels, a younger...
Naval Postgraduate School
Sep 25, 2019 Caetano, Christina, R.
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This article will briefly examine the legal background of minority and group rights, apply those concepts to the Iraqi Kurds, and establish possible Kurdish claims under international law. Next, it will analyze the political, regional, and legal factors affecting the exercise of group rights by the Iraqi Kurds. Finally, it will explore the position of the United States towards the exercise of group rights by the Iraqi Kurds and how this will impact both US policy and international law. Under...
Topic: Iraq, Kurds, Self-determination, group rights, autonomy
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