');
The Unz Review: An Alternative Media Selection
A Collection of Interesting, Important, and Controversial Perspectives Largely Excluded from the American Mainstream Media
 TeasersiSteve Blog
The Old, Weird Africa: Ancient Pygmy DNA Uncovered by David Reich
🔊 Listen RSS
Email This Page to Someone

 Remember My Information



=>

Bookmark Toggle AllToCAdd to LibraryRemove from Library • BShow CommentNext New CommentNext New ReplyRead More
ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc. More... This Commenter This Thread Hide Thread Display All Comments
AgreeDisagreeThanksLOLTroll
These buttons register your public Agreement, Disagreement, Thanks, LOL, or Troll with the selected comment. They are ONLY available to recent, frequent commenters who have saved their Name+Email using the 'Remember My Information' checkbox, and may also ONLY be used three times during any eight hour period.
Ignore Commenter Follow Commenter
Search Text Case Sensitive  Exact Words  Include Comments
    List of Bookmarks

      With the New Bantu Expansion gearing up to be perhaps the most important global event of the 21st Century, it’s worth looking at the cost paid by Pygmies and other diverse groups during the Old Bantu Expansion of prehistory.

      Svante Paabo’s breakthrough in being able to sequence DNA from ancient skeletons drove much of the most interesting science of the decade now just closed. But, we’ve tended to be lacking in ancient DNA from sub-Saharan Africa because DNA breaks down faster in warm and wet climates. A variety of other evidence has been pointing towards some interesting weirdnesses in current sub-Saharan DNA, such as indications of a lost “ghost archaic” ancestral population. I wrote about the “The Ghosts of Africa” two years ago in Taki’s Magazine in my third review of geneticist David Reich’s Who We Are and How We Got Here.

      Reich has now published on the Old, Weird Africa. From Nature:

      Ancient West African foragers in the context of African population history
      Mark Lipson, Isabelle Ribot, […]David Reich
      Nature (2020), Published: 22 January 2020

      Our knowledge of ancient human population structure in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly prior to the advent of food production, remains limited. Here we report genome-wide DNA data from four children—two of whom were buried approximately 8,000 years ago and two 3,000 years ago—from Shum Laka (Cameroon), one of the earliest known archaeological sites within the probable homeland of the Bantu language group1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11. One individual carried the deeply divergent Y chromosome haplogroup A00, which today is found almost exclusively in the same region12,13. However, the genome-wide ancestry profiles of all four individuals are most similar to those of present-day hunter-gatherers from western Central Africa, which implies that populations in western Cameroon today—as well as speakers of Bantu languages from across the continent—are not descended substantially from the population represented by these four people. We infer an Africa-wide phylogeny that features widespread admixture and three prominent radiations, including one that gave rise to at least four major lineages deep in the history of modern humans.

      From Science:

      DNA from child burials reveals ‘profoundly different’ human landscape in ancient Africa
      By Ann GibbonsJan. 22, 2020 , 1:00 PM

      Central Africa is too hot and humid for ancient DNA to survive—or so researchers thought. But now the bones of four children buried thousands of years ago in a rock shelter in the grasslands of Cameroon have yielded enough DNA for scientists to analyze. It’s the first ancient DNA from humans in the region, and as the team reports today in Nature, it holds multiple surprises. For one, the area today is the homeland of Bantu speakers, the majority group in western and Central Africa.

      As the world enters the age of the New Bantu Expansion, more attention should be paid to the history of the Old Bantu Expansion. Bantus are the primary ancestors of African-Americans. They expanded out of a homeland near the Nigerian-Cameroon border with the aid of two major technological advances: agriculture and iron-making. They wrested sub-Saharan Africa away from other racial groups.

      But the children turned out to be most closely related to hunter-gatherers such as the Baka and Aka—groups traditionally known as “pygmies”—who today live at least 500 kilometers away in the rainforests of western Central Africa.

      In other words, the Pygmies were marginalized by the Bantu Expansion.

      “In the supposed cradle of Bantu languages and, therefore, Bantu people, these people are basically ‘pygmy’ hunter-gatherers,” says Lluís Quintana-Murci, a population geneticist at the Pasteur Institute and CNRS, the French national research agency, who was not part of the new study. He and others have long suspected that these groups had a larger range before the Bantu population exploded 3000 years ago. The second big surprise came when the team compared the children’s DNA to other genetic data from Africa and found hints that the Baka, Aka, and other Central African hunter-gatherers belong to one of the most ancient lineages of modern humans, with roots going back 250,000 years.

      In the new study, geneticists and archaeologists took samples from the DNA-rich inner ear bones of the four children, who were buried 3000 and 8000 years ago at the famous archaeological site of Shum Laka. … Comparing the sequences to those of living Africans, they found that the four children were distant cousins, and that all had inherited about one-third of their DNA from ancestors most closely related to the hunter-gatherers of western Central Africa. Another two-thirds of children’s DNA came from an ancient “basal” source in West Africa, including some from a “long lost ghost population of modern humans that we didn’t know about before,” says population geneticist David Reich of Harvard University, leader of the study.

      The discovery underscores the diversity of African groups that inhabited the continent before the Bantus began to herd livestock in the grassy highlands of western Central Africa.

      We often hear Africans saluted for their genetic diversity, but the ironic reality is that the Old Bantu Expansion was one of the great disasters for human genetic diversity.

      The Bantus made pottery and forged iron, and their burgeoning populations rapidly displaced hunter-gatherers across Africa. Analyzing DNA from a time before this expansion offers “a glimpse of a human landscape that is profoundly different than today,” Reich says.

      … The team’s bold new model pushes back Central African hunter-gatherer origins to 200,000 to 250,000 years ago—not long after our species evolved. The model suggests their lineage split from three other modern human lineages: one leading to the Khoisan hunter-gatherers in southern Africa, one to east Africans, and one to a now-extinct “ghost” population. …

      Remember how I’ve been pointing out for years that New York Times reporters have developed an upside-down style in which they make the beginning of their articles on potentially politically incorrect topics as boring as possible and only slip in the interesting bits toward the end, long after most NYT subscribers have moved on, reassured that reality is as uninteresting as they assumed? Well, NYT genetics reporter Carl Zimmer’s write up, “Ancient DNA from West Africa Adds to Picture of Humans’ Rise,” is a classic in this regard. The word “pygmy” doesn’t appear until the 18th paragraph and the word “ghost” not until the 24th paragraph.

       
      Hide 105 CommentsLeave a Comment
      Commenters to Ignore...to FollowEndorsed Only
      Trim Comments?
      1. “but the ironic reality is that the Old Bantu Expansion was one of the great disasters for human genetic diversity”

        It seems that any expansion of Bantus, like to my neighborhood, is also a disaster for humans in general.

      2. One of the laugh-out-loud images that the egalitarians will have me believe is that Ashkenazi Jews have the same intelligence as Congo Pygmies. “If only the legacy of 1619 were abolished, we will see the Pygmy Einstein, the negrito von Neumann, the negrillo Feynman.”

      3. Reichs are familiar with pygmies.

        Sorry, no shots of this Reich with George Stigler, Paul Volcker or John Kenneth Galbraith.

        • LOL: Rosie, TWS
        • Troll: Redneck farmer
        • Replies: @Redneck farmer
        Meant to hit LOL. Anyway, it's a GOOD troll.
        , @Anonymous
        The Reich that lasted 1000mm.
        , @Charon
        Reminds me of Yitzhak Shamir.

        Just looked him up to make sure I spelled it right. Wiki has revised his past from 'terrorist' to 'militant'.
        , @ThreeCranes
        Talk about chopping a guy off at the knees.
      4. I’ve long wondered exactly what happened on Madagascar.

        The official version seems to be something about the central highlands being the most conducive to the rice agriculture that the Austronesians practiced, and the coast being unpopulated and open to settlement by Bantu, who then mixed with the Austronesians.

        Seems kind of hard to believe.

      5. The most interesting finding to me from sequencing these individuals was the phylogeny and map in Fig.4 and the alternate version of the phylogeny in the data supplement (hint: the full paper is on Sci-hub).

        One version says that basal west Africans have 10% admixture from a ghost modern human population that split off ~250k years ago at the same time as the Central African hunter gatherers. The alternate version says that admixture in basal west Africans could be as high as 29%. One is tempted to speculate if that version is the alternate version *because* they found a politically incorrect 29% deep admixture in the ancestors of all west African populations.

        But of course the environmentalists will DNA from people who spent 250,000 evolving in different environments couldn’t lead to any important functional differences anyways.

        • Replies: @res
        Thanks for the details. Full paper is also at Reich's site:
        https://reich.hms.harvard.edu/sites/reich.hms.harvard.edu/files/inline-files/Shum_Laka_published_online_0.pdf

        The full data (2.4 GB compressed) is available at https://reich.hms.harvard.edu/datasets

        I'm not seeing an easily embeddable copy of Figure 4 anywhere (anyone?). Is this the alternate phylogeny you meant?

        https://media.springernature.com/full/springer-static/esm/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41586-020-1929-1/MediaObjects/41586_2020_1929_Fig9_ESM.jpg
      6. We are the Han. Lower your defences and surrender your resources. We will add your biological and technological distinctiveness to our own. Your culture will adapt to service us. Resistance is futile.

        • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
        The Addis Ababa-Djibouti rail line may be the best thing in ages to happen to the locals, but not for the Chinese investors.
        , @neutral
        It will be opposite side that will have a problem. Chinese fertility rates are low, African fertility is not. Along with that China needs Africa for its resources and it will be forced by politics to open its door to ever increasing number of Africans, otherwise America will attack China for being racist.
        , @Anonymous
        The Chinese are arrogant, they believe they are exceptional but it seems clear to me that they don't understand blacks and are making all the same mistakes white colonialists did if not even more so.

        I don't think it will end well for the Chinese in Africa, many blacks already openly say they hate the Chinese more than they hated the whites. They seem to expect blacks to act like reasonable business partners and honour their committments, which is just laughably naive.
        , @Jake
        If they have the power and feel the need to do so, the Chinese will castrate hundreds of millions of black Africans and force their women to abort by the hundreds of millions.
      7. “It’s all very preliminary.”
        Two random mass shootings in downtown Seattle, one at 3 and the other at 5. Nothing is known about the suspect or suspects, who are still at large. Seattle has exactly the gun laws you would expect and is about as blue as San Antonio, St Louis, and Hawaii, which also recently had shootings, although none having double incidents so close together.

        • Replies: @Reg Cæsar

        Seattle has exactly the gun laws you would expect
         
        Washington has had shall-issue concealed carry since 1961. Municipalities can't pile on.

        https://gunculture2point0.wordpress.com/2014/06/19/the-history-of-concealed-weapons-laws-in-the-united-states-part-3-the-rise-of-the-shall-issue-right-to-carry-era-of-concealed-carry/

        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gun_laws_in_Washington#Summary_table
        , @J.Ross
        Follow-up: no one could have foreseen.
        https://postimg.cc/YvH0r1fj

        The suspects still at large are Marquise Latrelle Tolbert, 24, and William Ray Tolliver, 24. Police said both are armed and dangerous. Mayor Jenny Durkan said a third shooter was arrested.
        The third suspect, Jamel Linonell Jackson, 21, was arrested at the scene for being a felon with a gun. Police found him shot and Jackson was booked at 10:19 p.m. Wednesday after being released from Harborview Medical Center.
         
        https://www.kiro7.com/news/local/multiple-people-shot-downtown-seattle-police-say/IECNIRBVOZFYTAEJNDDUUQI4QI/
      8. Remember how I’ve been pointing out for years that New York Times reporters have developed an upside-down style in which they make the beginning of their articles on potentially politically incorrect topics as boring as possible and only slip in the interesting bits toward the end, long after most NYT subscribers have moved on, reassured that reality is as uninteresting as they assumed?

        Have you suggested a reason why? Is it so they can live with themselves because they know they peddle the party line and they are disgusted that they are whores?

        • Replies: @Hypnotoad666
        Do you think the New York Times specifically trains its reporters to write like hacks? Or is that just how an SJW automatically writes?
      9. Interestingly, not too long before the Bantu expansion, R1b males started showing up in Cameroon, presumably as metal-working herdsmen from the north via the Sahel.

        So it seems a few of our ancient kinsmen with a bad case of jungle fever may have precipitated the subsequent sub-Saharan demographic expansion.

      10. Interestingly, not too long before the Bantu expansion, R1b males started showing up in Cameroon

        It would be interesting if it turned out that Bantus (i.e. most modern Africans) got their genetic edge over earlier Africans through a small infusion of genes flowing back into Africa from Europe and the Middle East. That would upset some “Mother Africa” narratives.

        Also I wonder if the Pygmies were already diminutive before their Great Replacement by the Bantu. I bet the Bantu first drove them off the good lands and into the deep-forest, and only then did they really shrink down as an adaptation to living in the super-dense jungle.

        • Agree: BB753
        • Replies: @Haole

        It would be interesting if it turned out that Bantus (i.e. most modern Africans) got their genetic edge over earlier Africans through a small infusion of genes flowing back into Africa from Europe and the Middle East. That would upset some “Mother Africa” narratives.
         
        This exists, see the fulani tribe which were the rulers parts of africa from Chad to Senegal and the ethiopian highlanders, Amhara and others. These groups also had religions from the middle east, Islam and Christianity. The Bantus and other Africans were their slaves and servants. The Fulani depopulated lush highlands to use for their cattle.
      11. @Autochthon
        https://elordenmundial.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/África-China-Economía-Desarrollo-Finanzas-Préstamos-de-China-a-Gobiernos-africanos.png

        We are the Han. Lower your defences and surrender your resources. We will add your biological and technological distinctiveness to our own. Your culture will adapt to service us. Resistance is futile.

        The Addis Ababa-Djibouti rail line may be the best thing in ages to happen to the locals, but not for the Chinese investors.

        • Replies: @Mr. XYZ

        but not for the Chinese investors.
         
        Why not for them?
      12. @Reg Cæsar
        The Addis Ababa-Djibouti rail line may be the best thing in ages to happen to the locals, but not for the Chinese investors.

        but not for the Chinese investors.

        Why not for them?

        • Replies: @Reg Cæsar

        Why not for them?

         
        Among other reasons:

        And last year a stoppage was caused by trains colliding with camels, leading to pastoralists demanding the government compensate them for the loss of their precious livestock...

        The building, which looked like it had been parachuted directly from China to Ethiopia, was completely deserted - only a soldier stood guard, with a few Chinese workers roaming around...

        https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-49580863
         
      13. @J.Ross
        "It's all very preliminary."
        Two random mass shootings in downtown Seattle, one at 3 and the other at 5. Nothing is known about the suspect or suspects, who are still at large. Seattle has exactly the gun laws you would expect and is about as blue as San Antonio, St Louis, and Hawaii, which also recently had shootings, although none having double incidents so close together.
        https://twitter.com/MichaelKIRO7/status/1220154329107054592?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fd-35225442604268296933.ampproject.net%2F2001071857360%2Fframe.html
        • Replies: @J.Ross
        Municipalities piling on is our legislative process, tolerating concealed carry doesn't count as anything.
      14. @Charles Erwin Wilson 3

        Remember how I’ve been pointing out for years that New York Times reporters have developed an upside-down style in which they make the beginning of their articles on potentially politically incorrect topics as boring as possible and only slip in the interesting bits toward the end, long after most NYT subscribers have moved on, reassured that reality is as uninteresting as they assumed?
         
        Have you suggested a reason why? Is it so they can live with themselves because they know they peddle the party line and they are disgusted that they are whores?

        Do you think the New York Times specifically trains its reporters to write like hacks? Or is that just how an SJW automatically writes?

        • Replies: @Bert
        "Born to an Ashkenazi Jewish father and mother of Irish and German descent, science and heredity has long fascinated Carl Zimmer."

        https://www.timesofisrael.com/hands-on-science-journalist-unlocks-the-secrets-of-genetic-hand-me-downs/
        , @Charles Erwin Wilson 3

        Do you think the New York Times specifically trains its reporters to write like hacks? Or is that just how an SJW automatically writes?
         
        To the first question, no. To the second question, yes. You have to have a profound intellectual deficiency to adopt the SJW perspective (no facts, no reason, and, especially, no morals).
      15. Yeah, but you hate pygmies as much as you hate Bantus.

      16. I don’t think there will be a dramatic “New Bantu Expansion” Even a Merkel wouldn’t let in millions of sub-Saharan Africans at once. The amounts will probably continue to be comparatively small, 100,000 or so a year in a giant country like the USA. However, with Whites (and East Asians) losing 1/4 each generation in what amounts to a mass suicide, whoever is breeding is in very good shape.

        non-Black Muslims are well on their way towards taking over Europe and will probably restrict sub-Saharan African immigration.

        I just hope my kids and future grandchildren can adapt to whatever is coming over the rest of the century. That’s about all most of us can do, try to help your family navigate through the craziness.

        • Replies: @Brian Reilly
        If the population of sub-Saharan Africa increases as some forecast (see Sailer's most Important Graph, etc.) and the means to leave increases at the same pace, and the willingness/political ability to prevent immigration in Europe and the US continues on present course, why do you think that there will NOT be a huge out migration of sub-Saharan blacks to the rest of the habitable world? If blacks take over the administration of European nations, what makes you think that the administrative skill evinced in black administration elsewhere will be effective at border closing?

        Think also about Chinese influence in African administration. It is my impression that Chinese administrators and investors, and those Chinese associated therewith, don't care too much about Africans, or Europeans. If the Chinese influence is as strong as some report, and if the Chinese want to have some warm, wet, mineral laden territory without the people who used to live there, then we might find that Chinese people facilitating the movement of Africans to places that the Chinese are not interested in. Like, say, Berlin or Mexico, Chicago, or Atlanta. Or Heaven, if the cost of trans-oceanic transportation of exportable undersireables is too high for the Han pocketbook.

        My nephew (20 year old white lad. Smart but not a genius) will see some amazing changes if he lives to see his expected 80 or so years. And his kids? Might not make 60.
        , @Charles Erwin Wilson 3

        I just hope my kids and future grandchildren can adapt to whatever is coming over the rest of the century. That’s about all most of us can do, try to help your family navigate through the craziness.
         
        Well, that is one strategy. Another one is to resist the craziness. Maybe we can recover our republic, which is a different strategy. Finally, we can claim self-determination and obtain a separation, and then a divorce.
      17. Omegabooks [AKA "Anon"] says:

        Great post! thanks! Now do one about how and why the “san” (Khoisan) bushmen speak with clicks. I mean, how in the world can anyone speak with click consonants? (inspired by the movie series “The Gods Must Be Crazy”…love the click speaking! !Xi one of my fave movie characters).

        • Replies: @A'm on
        I took articulatory phonetics in the linguistics department at UCLA in the 1970s. The final exam was pronouncing words containing every sound in every language in the world. Surprisingly, the clicks were not the most difficult.
        , @Eagle Eye
        A fascinating aspect of this is that the click languages are correlated with Khoi/San genetic heritage which seems to have split off from the rest of humanity some 250,000 years ago.

        This means that with the help of ancient DNA analysis, we can trace linguistic features back over 200,000 years.

        Interestingly, Khoi/San clicks became also incorporated into South African Bantu languages such as Xhosa and Zulu when Bantu invaders took Khoi/San women after killing their menfolk, probably within the past 1,000 years. The Xhosa and Zulu themselves are, of course, well aware of their own history, only squeamish Western "anthropologists" in the late 20th and early 21st centuries prefer to gloss over the brutal realities of the old Bantu expansion.

        (BTW - where and when exactly did the Bantus pick up lactose tolerance? This may have happened only after they had reached East Africa where they encountered cattle raising groups. Are today's West African Bantus lactose tolerant?)

        In traditional linguistics, the "comparative method" of comparing related present and historical languages to gain insights as to their antecedents at most provides clues as to language features with a time horizon of at most 10,000 years. Starostin has done interesting work on this with his "Nostratic" hypothesis of an ancient connection linking most of the world's major language groups including the native American Na-Dene languages.
      18. @Reg Cæsar

        Seattle has exactly the gun laws you would expect
         
        Washington has had shall-issue concealed carry since 1961. Municipalities can't pile on.

        https://gunculture2point0.wordpress.com/2014/06/19/the-history-of-concealed-weapons-laws-in-the-united-states-part-3-the-rise-of-the-shall-issue-right-to-carry-era-of-concealed-carry/

        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gun_laws_in_Washington#Summary_table

        Municipalities piling on is our legislative process, tolerating concealed carry doesn’t count as anything.

      19. @Mr. XYZ

        but not for the Chinese investors.
         
        Why not for them?

        Why not for them?

        Among other reasons:

        And last year a stoppage was caused by trains colliding with camels, leading to pastoralists demanding the government compensate them for the loss of their precious livestock…

        The building, which looked like it had been parachuted directly from China to Ethiopia, was completely deserted – only a soldier stood guard, with a few Chinese workers roaming around…

        https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-49580863

        • Replies: @Lot
        Great article. The Glorious Belt and Suspenders China Africa Friendship Project is going almost exactly as planned!
      20. @Reg Cæsar

        Why not for them?

         
        Among other reasons:

        And last year a stoppage was caused by trains colliding with camels, leading to pastoralists demanding the government compensate them for the loss of their precious livestock...

        The building, which looked like it had been parachuted directly from China to Ethiopia, was completely deserted - only a soldier stood guard, with a few Chinese workers roaming around...

        https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-49580863
         

        Great article. The Glorious Belt and Suspenders China Africa Friendship Project is going almost exactly as planned!

      21. Re the “long lost ghost population of modern humans”: what makes them modern?

        And was there a technological regression among Bantus?

      22. The ghost population might have been some sort of Guinean pygmy?

        Anyways, i guess the pygmies were like that spit cereal meme

        “He’ll never develop agriculture and metalworking!”

      23. Anon[289] • Disclaimer says:

        This is all kind of confusing to me, but what would the most politically incorrect headline be? “African American Ancestors Implicated in Mass Genocide; Pygmies Demand Reparations.” Something like that?

        By the way: 8,000 years ago two kids are buried in a cave. 5,000 years later two more kids are added. What’s with that?

      24. Weren’t Yamnaya (Aryan) expansion and replacement in Eurasia as big as Bantu in Africa ?

        • Replies: @JohnPlywood
        There was no "Yamnaya (Aryan)" replacement in Europe.

        1.) Yamnaya weren't Aryan. The Aryan (Indo-Iranian) languages are newer formed after Yamnaya went extinct.

        2.) Yamnaya belonted to clades of R1b are extremely rare outside of Southeastern Europe, where it is a minority today. Most Europeans carry clades of R1b or R1a that could not have come from Yamnaya.

        http://eurogenes.blogspot.com/2019/09/is-yamnaya-overrated.html


        If anything it was Yamnaya who were replaced by Aryans (R1a Indo Iranians).
      25. You can tell that Africans are a tyrannical people by their interactions, crime rate, and music. All points to domination and tyranny. No benevolence, etc. Slavery was how they treated each other.

        • Replies: @Autochthon
        What race has a crime rate that does reflect benevolence? I take your point, but the way you make it is a bit goofy.
      26. I see they’re putting scare quotes now around pygmy.

      27. Anonymous[303] • Disclaimer says:

        OT

        The French government has just sentenced the academic and intellectual Renaud Camus to a lengthy prison sentence, and a hefty fine, for the ‘crime’ of intellectualising, that is having the temerity to criticize the French regime’s policy on immigration on the facts, and the facts alone, *without* the use of provocative, inflammatory or violent language or rhetoric specifically aimed at any ethnicity in particular.
        So, now, basically, freedom of expression and thought is a serious criminal offence in France. Intellectualisation is a crime of the most serious magnitude.

        The name ‘Alexander Solzhenitsyn’ comes to mind.

        *ANY* regime which habitually persecutes intellectuals is *INHERENTLY EVIL*

        – the big ‘joke’ about all this is that the ‘liberal’ French regime regularly, publicly and hysterically wets its panties pointing its horrid finger at China, when the Chinese have been ‘guilty’ of far far milder censorship.

      28. Anonymous[303] • Disclaimer says:

        The predominant Y haplotype amongst contemporary black Africans is E – the ‘basal’ Y haplotypes A and B are rarities in comparison. Likely the diffusion of E is linked to the Bantu expansion.
        The tantalizing theory is that E was originally a Eurasian marker in origin, originating deep within the Eurasian landmass, and was never authentically African at all. This raises the possibility that the original E bearing population, invaders from the north, via Sinai were a typically basal Eurasian people resembling the hypothecated ‘Natufians’.

        The upshot is that the ubiquity of E amongst today’s black Africans is a long long vestige relict marker – a marker and nothing more – of a far distant ancient regime of ‘Eurasian supremacy’ over sub Saharan Africans – the women were taken and multiply impregnated, whilst the A and B carrying males withered away ……

      29. Expanding populations usually have a ready source of food – the Indo Europeans had cattle for instance. What source did Bantus have? Given their predilection for eating Pygmies today in Congo, I can only guess the expansion was pygmy-powered.

        • Agree: jim jones
        • Replies: @Anonymous
        Self moving 'meals ready to eat' protein packages in handy bite size chunks.
        , @Anonymous
        If only the Bantus would fund intellectual pygmies as delicious as physical pygmies.
        ...... Think about it. In a win-win circular trade, the UK could export the entire Economist Editorial Board to Africa. Nothing of any value would be lost, and one nifty fell-swoop two of the world's direst problems would mutually eliminate each other - the residuum, poop on the ground, unlike the paper hard copy is biodegradable, non toxic, non radioactive food for our bacterial cousins, and infinitely of greater value than the Farter of St. James's.

        Alas. One can only dream and fantasise.
      30. @Autochthon
        https://elordenmundial.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/África-China-Economía-Desarrollo-Finanzas-Préstamos-de-China-a-Gobiernos-africanos.png

        We are the Han. Lower your defences and surrender your resources. We will add your biological and technological distinctiveness to our own. Your culture will adapt to service us. Resistance is futile.

        It will be opposite side that will have a problem. Chinese fertility rates are low, African fertility is not. Along with that China needs Africa for its resources and it will be forced by politics to open its door to ever increasing number of Africans, otherwise America will attack China for being racist.

        • Replies: @Charon
        Somehow I think the Chinese will be able to take American accusations of racism in stride. Perhaps with a side order of snickering.
        , @Anonymous
        No, America will not attack China for anything. China has nuclear ICBMs. America will bitch and moan and introduce meaningless resolutions.

        China DGAF.

        Africa has the critical rare earth minerals China needs, and some of the best agricultural land on earth. They will take it. They have learned from the white man’s mistakes.
        , @Okechukwu

        America will attack China for being racist.
         
        I doubt the average Chinese is as racist as you are:

        https://youtu.be/8XHS_ftUARI
      31. They got a handle on iron-making and agriculture. Good for them.

      32. @Reg Cæsar
        Reichs are familiar with pygmies.

        http://www4.pictures.zimbio.com/gi/Robert+Reich+RWDatEqBdS-m.jpg

        https://www.berkeleyside.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Screen-Shot-2015-05-14-at-9.01.35-PM-720x482.png

        https://www2.palomar.edu/pages/sse/files/2018/12/2018-11-16-robert-reich-k-1-imgp8532_45218731764_o-1024x683.jpg


        Sorry, no shots of this Reich with George Stigler, Paul Volcker or John Kenneth Galbraith.

        Meant to hit LOL. Anyway, it’s a GOOD troll.

        • Replies: @Reg Cæsar

        Meant to hit LOL. Anyway, it’s a GOOD troll.
         
        Thanks. I never go near those buttons, especially on a tablet. Too treacherous.
      33. Anonymous[317] • Disclaimer says:

        The brutal treatment of non-Bantu races by Bantus in Sub-Saharan Africa is a big “elephant in the room” for leftists, which is why it is largely ignored. The native population of South Africa was San bushmen who look very different to Bantus, and they were wiped out by Bantu invaders who entered South Africa AFTER whites did. I think this is a fact that white South Africans don’t speak about enough because it shows up the black Bantus for what they are. San bushmen were wiped out all across Africa by Bantus, they only survived later in South Africa because there were no Bantus there. Pygmys are also being genocided across Africa by Bantus.

        White South Africans largely let the Bantus get away with this absurd notion that they are the native people and don’t challenge it, which even a quick reading of South African and Sub-Saharan African history clearly proves to be false.

        • Replies: @IHTG
        It doesn't matter whether they're native or not, it matters that they're a majority.
        , @Art Deco
        1. They weren't wiped out by the Bantu.

        2. Today's South Africa can be bisected north to south. East of that meridian, Bantu settlement antedates the arrival of the Boers. West of that meridian, the Hottentot and Bushman population still prevailed in the mid-17th century.
        , @Art Deco
        White South Africans largely let the Bantus get away with this absurd notion that they are the native people and don’t challenge it,

        The Bantustan system was based on the premise that the Boers settled 87% of South Africa's land area before the Bantu arrived. See Donald Woods' discussion of this discourse in South African politics ca. 1978.
      34. Anonymous[317] • Disclaimer says:
        @Autochthon
        https://elordenmundial.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/África-China-Economía-Desarrollo-Finanzas-Préstamos-de-China-a-Gobiernos-africanos.png

        We are the Han. Lower your defences and surrender your resources. We will add your biological and technological distinctiveness to our own. Your culture will adapt to service us. Resistance is futile.

        The Chinese are arrogant, they believe they are exceptional but it seems clear to me that they don’t understand blacks and are making all the same mistakes white colonialists did if not even more so.

        I don’t think it will end well for the Chinese in Africa, many blacks already openly say they hate the Chinese more than they hated the whites. They seem to expect blacks to act like reasonable business partners and honour their committments, which is just laughably naive.

        • Replies: @donvonburg
        The Chinese will learn fast, and they will act in ways the white man failed to do. Blacks will be made to honor their commitments, or bad things will happen to them. The Chinese are not Christians, and they do not pretend to be. The Chinese have cruise missiles, attack helicopters, and all the other modern accoutrements of warfare and the African Big Man who doublecrosses them will have his palatial accomodations demolished, or his motorcade struck by a guided missile. After that happens a couple of times-and World Opinion will not matter to them, and what is the US going to do, go to nuclear war with China over a few hundred roasted Africans?-the Big Men will do as they are told.

        And when the Big Man tells Africans how it is, that is indeed how it is.

        It makes Blacks vote Democrat in the US, and it will make black Africans work well with the Chinese.
      35. @bucky
        You can tell that Africans are a tyrannical people by their interactions, crime rate, and music. All points to domination and tyranny. No benevolence, etc. Slavery was how they treated each other.

        What race has a crime rate that does reflect benevolence? I take your point, but the way you make it is a bit goofy.

      36. @Anonymous
        The Chinese are arrogant, they believe they are exceptional but it seems clear to me that they don't understand blacks and are making all the same mistakes white colonialists did if not even more so.

        I don't think it will end well for the Chinese in Africa, many blacks already openly say they hate the Chinese more than they hated the whites. They seem to expect blacks to act like reasonable business partners and honour their committments, which is just laughably naive.

        The Chinese will learn fast, and they will act in ways the white man failed to do. Blacks will be made to honor their commitments, or bad things will happen to them. The Chinese are not Christians, and they do not pretend to be. The Chinese have cruise missiles, attack helicopters, and all the other modern accoutrements of warfare and the African Big Man who doublecrosses them will have his palatial accomodations demolished, or his motorcade struck by a guided missile. After that happens a couple of times-and World Opinion will not matter to them, and what is the US going to do, go to nuclear war with China over a few hundred roasted Africans?-the Big Men will do as they are told.

        And when the Big Man tells Africans how it is, that is indeed how it is.

        It makes Blacks vote Democrat in the US, and it will make black Africans work well with the Chinese.

        • Replies: @YetAnotherAnon
        "the African Big Man who doublecrosses them will have his palatial accomodations demolished, or his motorcade struck by a guided missile"

        And then I can see Trump threatening the Chinese in Africa, the Chinese backing down (they only have to wait and the US will destroy itself, no point in going mano a mano), Trump as the Saviour of Africa, and the black American share of the Republican vote rising - by maybe 3 percent?
        , @Joe Stalin
        "The Chinese have cruise missiles, attack helicopters, and all the other modern accoutrements of warfare and the African Big Man who doublecrosses them will have his palatial accomodations demolished, or his motorcade struck by a guided missile. "

        Superpower.

        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xnoaWO3KDIA

        And most importantly, they got a catchy song!

        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MXEmNF8TTto
      37. @Anonymous
        The brutal treatment of non-Bantu races by Bantus in Sub-Saharan Africa is a big "elephant in the room" for leftists, which is why it is largely ignored. The native population of South Africa was San bushmen who look very different to Bantus, and they were wiped out by Bantu invaders who entered South Africa AFTER whites did. I think this is a fact that white South Africans don't speak about enough because it shows up the black Bantus for what they are. San bushmen were wiped out all across Africa by Bantus, they only survived later in South Africa because there were no Bantus there. Pygmys are also being genocided across Africa by Bantus.

        White South Africans largely let the Bantus get away with this absurd notion that they are the native people and don't challenge it, which even a quick reading of South African and Sub-Saharan African history clearly proves to be false.

        It doesn’t matter whether they’re native or not, it matters that they’re a majority.

        • Replies: @Anonymous
        I don't think whites on the whole have handled their settlement of South Africa very well and have not managed their relations with the Bantu population effectively.

        The history of South Africa is frankly a case study on how NOT to go about settling a distant land.
      38. @Reg Cæsar
        Reichs are familiar with pygmies.

        http://www4.pictures.zimbio.com/gi/Robert+Reich+RWDatEqBdS-m.jpg

        https://www.berkeleyside.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Screen-Shot-2015-05-14-at-9.01.35-PM-720x482.png

        https://www2.palomar.edu/pages/sse/files/2018/12/2018-11-16-robert-reich-k-1-imgp8532_45218731764_o-1024x683.jpg


        Sorry, no shots of this Reich with George Stigler, Paul Volcker or John Kenneth Galbraith.

        The Reich that lasted 1000mm.

      39. @IHTG
        It doesn't matter whether they're native or not, it matters that they're a majority.

        I don’t think whites on the whole have handled their settlement of South Africa very well and have not managed their relations with the Bantu population effectively.

        The history of South Africa is frankly a case study on how NOT to go about settling a distant land.

        • Replies: @Anonymous
        The Boer wanted to stay White. But he also wanted his peculiar culture and his kindertaal Afrikaans and his God-Damned Dutch Reformed Church and his comfortable financial future and to not have to do his own shit-work. These desires came before thinking racially.

        That goes for Rhodesia too. But in some ways more so. In both cases had they brought in more whites and been willing to pay white wages they could have had sufficient numbers.
      40. @donvonburg
        The Chinese will learn fast, and they will act in ways the white man failed to do. Blacks will be made to honor their commitments, or bad things will happen to them. The Chinese are not Christians, and they do not pretend to be. The Chinese have cruise missiles, attack helicopters, and all the other modern accoutrements of warfare and the African Big Man who doublecrosses them will have his palatial accomodations demolished, or his motorcade struck by a guided missile. After that happens a couple of times-and World Opinion will not matter to them, and what is the US going to do, go to nuclear war with China over a few hundred roasted Africans?-the Big Men will do as they are told.

        And when the Big Man tells Africans how it is, that is indeed how it is.

        It makes Blacks vote Democrat in the US, and it will make black Africans work well with the Chinese.

        “the African Big Man who doublecrosses them will have his palatial accomodations demolished, or his motorcade struck by a guided missile”

        And then I can see Trump threatening the Chinese in Africa, the Chinese backing down (they only have to wait and the US will destroy itself, no point in going mano a mano), Trump as the Saviour of Africa, and the black American share of the Republican vote rising – by maybe 3 percent?

        • Replies: @Charon
        Trump won't be president.
      41. So, do the Bantus descend from the Wakandans, or does it turn out the Wakandans are actually the Neanderthals of Africa?

      42. The local paper that my 81 year old father finally stopped subscribing to has an upsidedown first section. The front page is totally vapid and the back page has one really important story tucked away under the weather map.

      43. @Bruno
        Weren’t Yamnaya (Aryan) expansion and replacement in Eurasia as big as Bantu in Africa ?

        There was no “Yamnaya (Aryan)” replacement in Europe.

        1.) Yamnaya weren’t Aryan. The Aryan (Indo-Iranian) languages are newer formed after Yamnaya went extinct.

        2.) Yamnaya belonted to clades of R1b are extremely rare outside of Southeastern Europe, where it is a minority today. Most Europeans carry clades of R1b or R1a that could not have come from Yamnaya.

        http://eurogenes.blogspot.com/2019/09/is-yamnaya-overrated.html

        If anything it was Yamnaya who were replaced by Aryans (R1a Indo Iranians).

        • Replies: @Pheasant
        Yamnaya meaning aryan obviously meaning speakers of proto-indoeuropean.
      44. Black guys will bang anything … including animals and monkeys (hence AIDS).

      45. @TelfoedJohn
        Expanding populations usually have a ready source of food - the Indo Europeans had cattle for instance. What source did Bantus have? Given their predilection for eating Pygmies today in Congo, I can only guess the expansion was pygmy-powered.

        Self moving ‘meals ready to eat’ protein packages in handy bite size chunks.

      46. Why is there no admixture edge from Africans to French?

        It does not make sense considering Taforalt is so closely related to a basal West African population.

      47. I wonder if this “ghost” population is actually another hominid species altogether, similar to the Neanderthals and Denisovans. I remember awhile ago they were able to trace the DNA of a West African man to a male ancestor that lived over 400000 years ago, which is much farther back than any identified Homo Sapiens groups. It’s possible that this was the “ghost” hominid species and that some HS migrated westward and intermingled with this species.

        • Replies: @Pheasant
        I remember that too and found it fascinating.
      48. Anonymous[342] • Disclaimer says:
        @TelfoedJohn
        Expanding populations usually have a ready source of food - the Indo Europeans had cattle for instance. What source did Bantus have? Given their predilection for eating Pygmies today in Congo, I can only guess the expansion was pygmy-powered.

        If only the Bantus would fund intellectual pygmies as delicious as physical pygmies.
        …… Think about it. In a win-win circular trade, the UK could export the entire Economist Editorial Board to Africa. Nothing of any value would be lost, and one nifty fell-swoop two of the world’s direst problems would mutually eliminate each other – the residuum, poop on the ground, unlike the paper hard copy is biodegradable, non toxic, non radioactive food for our bacterial cousins, and infinitely of greater value than the Farter of St. James’s.

        Alas. One can only dream and fantasise.

      49. @Reg Cæsar
        Reichs are familiar with pygmies.

        http://www4.pictures.zimbio.com/gi/Robert+Reich+RWDatEqBdS-m.jpg

        https://www.berkeleyside.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Screen-Shot-2015-05-14-at-9.01.35-PM-720x482.png

        https://www2.palomar.edu/pages/sse/files/2018/12/2018-11-16-robert-reich-k-1-imgp8532_45218731764_o-1024x683.jpg


        Sorry, no shots of this Reich with George Stigler, Paul Volcker or John Kenneth Galbraith.

        Reminds me of Yitzhak Shamir.

        Just looked him up to make sure I spelled it right. Wiki has revised his past from ‘terrorist’ to ‘militant’.

      50. @neutral
        It will be opposite side that will have a problem. Chinese fertility rates are low, African fertility is not. Along with that China needs Africa for its resources and it will be forced by politics to open its door to ever increasing number of Africans, otherwise America will attack China for being racist.

        Somehow I think the Chinese will be able to take American accusations of racism in stride. Perhaps with a side order of snickering.

      51. @YetAnotherAnon
        "the African Big Man who doublecrosses them will have his palatial accomodations demolished, or his motorcade struck by a guided missile"

        And then I can see Trump threatening the Chinese in Africa, the Chinese backing down (they only have to wait and the US will destroy itself, no point in going mano a mano), Trump as the Saviour of Africa, and the black American share of the Republican vote rising - by maybe 3 percent?

        Trump won’t be president.

      52. @Morris Applebaum IV
        I don't think there will be a dramatic "New Bantu Expansion" Even a Merkel wouldn't let in millions of sub-Saharan Africans at once. The amounts will probably continue to be comparatively small, 100,000 or so a year in a giant country like the USA. However, with Whites (and East Asians) losing 1/4 each generation in what amounts to a mass suicide, whoever is breeding is in very good shape.

        non-Black Muslims are well on their way towards taking over Europe and will probably restrict sub-Saharan African immigration.

        I just hope my kids and future grandchildren can adapt to whatever is coming over the rest of the century. That's about all most of us can do, try to help your family navigate through the craziness.

        If the population of sub-Saharan Africa increases as some forecast (see Sailer’s most Important Graph, etc.) and the means to leave increases at the same pace, and the willingness/political ability to prevent immigration in Europe and the US continues on present course, why do you think that there will NOT be a huge out migration of sub-Saharan blacks to the rest of the habitable world? If blacks take over the administration of European nations, what makes you think that the administrative skill evinced in black administration elsewhere will be effective at border closing?

        Think also about Chinese influence in African administration. It is my impression that Chinese administrators and investors, and those Chinese associated therewith, don’t care too much about Africans, or Europeans. If the Chinese influence is as strong as some report, and if the Chinese want to have some warm, wet, mineral laden territory without the people who used to live there, then we might find that Chinese people facilitating the movement of Africans to places that the Chinese are not interested in. Like, say, Berlin or Mexico, Chicago, or Atlanta. Or Heaven, if the cost of trans-oceanic transportation of exportable undersireables is too high for the Han pocketbook.

        My nephew (20 year old white lad. Smart but not a genius) will see some amazing changes if he lives to see his expected 80 or so years. And his kids? Might not make 60.

        • Replies: @Fun
        Trading infrastructure for natural resources is one thing. Regime change and genocide is another. Those are the traditional domains of Western powers (I regret to inform you). What makes you think China will be recognizable as China in 60 years?
        , @Charles Erwin Wilson 3

        the means to leave increases at the same pace, and the willingness/political ability to prevent immigration in Europe and the US continues on present course
         
        Your conjectures will not happen. Trump is the evidence of the turning of the tide. Your nephew will see amazing changes, but they will not be changes projected from the current trajectory.

        There are few certainties, but the failure of static analysis to correctly predict the future is certain.

        Cheer up. Things will not be as bad as you think.
      53. Koos Van der Merwe would go on and on about how the Boers beat the Bantus to the Cape. And that the Coloured community was created by rascal Dutch boys misbehaving with Capoid girls, which is kind of correct, but the truth is more complicated.

        Nelson Mandela sure looked like he had some Capoid in his genes.

      54. @415 reasons
        The most interesting finding to me from sequencing these individuals was the phylogeny and map in Fig.4 and the alternate version of the phylogeny in the data supplement (hint: the full paper is on Sci-hub).

        One version says that basal west Africans have 10% admixture from a ghost modern human population that split off ~250k years ago at the same time as the Central African hunter gatherers. The alternate version says that admixture in basal west Africans could be as high as 29%. One is tempted to speculate if that version is the alternate version *because* they found a politically incorrect 29% deep admixture in the ancestors of all west African populations.

        But of course the environmentalists will DNA from people who spent 250,000 evolving in different environments couldn’t lead to any important functional differences anyways.

        Thanks for the details. Full paper is also at Reich’s site:
        https://reich.hms.harvard.edu/sites/reich.hms.harvard.edu/files/inline-files/Shum_Laka_published_online_0.pdf

        The full data (2.4 GB compressed) is available at https://reich.hms.harvard.edu/datasets

        I’m not seeing an easily embeddable copy of Figure 4 anywhere (anyone?). Is this the alternate phylogeny you meant?

        • Replies: @415 reasons
        Yes that is the one
        , @Eagle Eye
        Reich's graph is closely associated with a map of Africa on the same page.

        "Hunter-gatherer" is apparently PC-speak for "pygmy."

        One recalls that the former president of Gabon, 5'0" Omar Bongo, prohibited all use of the word "pygmy." In 2020, the writ of Gabonese law runs deep into U.S. universities.
      55. @Anonymous
        The brutal treatment of non-Bantu races by Bantus in Sub-Saharan Africa is a big "elephant in the room" for leftists, which is why it is largely ignored. The native population of South Africa was San bushmen who look very different to Bantus, and they were wiped out by Bantu invaders who entered South Africa AFTER whites did. I think this is a fact that white South Africans don't speak about enough because it shows up the black Bantus for what they are. San bushmen were wiped out all across Africa by Bantus, they only survived later in South Africa because there were no Bantus there. Pygmys are also being genocided across Africa by Bantus.

        White South Africans largely let the Bantus get away with this absurd notion that they are the native people and don't challenge it, which even a quick reading of South African and Sub-Saharan African history clearly proves to be false.

        1. They weren’t wiped out by the Bantu.

        2. Today’s South Africa can be bisected north to south. East of that meridian, Bantu settlement antedates the arrival of the Boers. West of that meridian, the Hottentot and Bushman population still prevailed in the mid-17th century.

      56. @Anonymous
        The brutal treatment of non-Bantu races by Bantus in Sub-Saharan Africa is a big "elephant in the room" for leftists, which is why it is largely ignored. The native population of South Africa was San bushmen who look very different to Bantus, and they were wiped out by Bantu invaders who entered South Africa AFTER whites did. I think this is a fact that white South Africans don't speak about enough because it shows up the black Bantus for what they are. San bushmen were wiped out all across Africa by Bantus, they only survived later in South Africa because there were no Bantus there. Pygmys are also being genocided across Africa by Bantus.

        White South Africans largely let the Bantus get away with this absurd notion that they are the native people and don't challenge it, which even a quick reading of South African and Sub-Saharan African history clearly proves to be false.

        White South Africans largely let the Bantus get away with this absurd notion that they are the native people and don’t challenge it,

        The Bantustan system was based on the premise that the Boers settled 87% of South Africa’s land area before the Bantu arrived. See Donald Woods’ discussion of this discourse in South African politics ca. 1978.

      57. @Omegabooks
        Great post! thanks! Now do one about how and why the "san" (Khoisan) bushmen speak with clicks. I mean, how in the world can anyone speak with click consonants? (inspired by the movie series "The Gods Must Be Crazy"...love the click speaking! !Xi one of my fave movie characters).

        I took articulatory phonetics in the linguistics department at UCLA in the 1970s. The final exam was pronouncing words containing every sound in every language in the world. Surprisingly, the clicks were not the most difficult.

        • Replies: @TelfoedJohn
        Is there a “The quick brown fox…” style paragraph (or longer) which has all possible sounds from all languages? Would be fun to try and learn.

        Clicks seem to come quite naturally - when my kid was learn was learning to speak he would substitute ‘nk’ at the end of a word with a click.
      58. @donvonburg
        The Chinese will learn fast, and they will act in ways the white man failed to do. Blacks will be made to honor their commitments, or bad things will happen to them. The Chinese are not Christians, and they do not pretend to be. The Chinese have cruise missiles, attack helicopters, and all the other modern accoutrements of warfare and the African Big Man who doublecrosses them will have his palatial accomodations demolished, or his motorcade struck by a guided missile. After that happens a couple of times-and World Opinion will not matter to them, and what is the US going to do, go to nuclear war with China over a few hundred roasted Africans?-the Big Men will do as they are told.

        And when the Big Man tells Africans how it is, that is indeed how it is.

        It makes Blacks vote Democrat in the US, and it will make black Africans work well with the Chinese.

        “The Chinese have cruise missiles, attack helicopters, and all the other modern accoutrements of warfare and the African Big Man who doublecrosses them will have his palatial accomodations demolished, or his motorcade struck by a guided missile. ”

        Superpower.

        And most importantly, they got a catchy song!

      59. @res
        Thanks for the details. Full paper is also at Reich's site:
        https://reich.hms.harvard.edu/sites/reich.hms.harvard.edu/files/inline-files/Shum_Laka_published_online_0.pdf

        The full data (2.4 GB compressed) is available at https://reich.hms.harvard.edu/datasets

        I'm not seeing an easily embeddable copy of Figure 4 anywhere (anyone?). Is this the alternate phylogeny you meant?

        https://media.springernature.com/full/springer-static/esm/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41586-020-1929-1/MediaObjects/41586_2020_1929_Fig9_ESM.jpg

        Yes that is the one

      60. @Hypnotoad666
        Do you think the New York Times specifically trains its reporters to write like hacks? Or is that just how an SJW automatically writes?

        “Born to an Ashkenazi Jewish father and mother of Irish and German descent, science and heredity has long fascinated Carl Zimmer.”

        https://www.timesofisrael.com/hands-on-science-journalist-unlocks-the-secrets-of-genetic-hand-me-downs/

      61. @Hypnotoad666

        Interestingly, not too long before the Bantu expansion, R1b males started showing up in Cameroon
         
        It would be interesting if it turned out that Bantus (i.e. most modern Africans) got their genetic edge over earlier Africans through a small infusion of genes flowing back into Africa from Europe and the Middle East. That would upset some "Mother Africa" narratives.

        Also I wonder if the Pygmies were already diminutive before their Great Replacement by the Bantu. I bet the Bantu first drove them off the good lands and into the deep-forest, and only then did they really shrink down as an adaptation to living in the super-dense jungle.

        It would be interesting if it turned out that Bantus (i.e. most modern Africans) got their genetic edge over earlier Africans through a small infusion of genes flowing back into Africa from Europe and the Middle East. That would upset some “Mother Africa” narratives.

        This exists, see the fulani tribe which were the rulers parts of africa from Chad to Senegal and the ethiopian highlanders, Amhara and others. These groups also had religions from the middle east, Islam and Christianity. The Bantus and other Africans were their slaves and servants. The Fulani depopulated lush highlands to use for their cattle.

      62. @Autochthon
        https://elordenmundial.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/África-China-Economía-Desarrollo-Finanzas-Préstamos-de-China-a-Gobiernos-africanos.png

        We are the Han. Lower your defences and surrender your resources. We will add your biological and technological distinctiveness to our own. Your culture will adapt to service us. Resistance is futile.

        If they have the power and feel the need to do so, the Chinese will castrate hundreds of millions of black Africans and force their women to abort by the hundreds of millions.

        • Replies: @Okechukwu

        If they have the power and feel the need to do so, the Chinese will castrate hundreds of millions of black Africans and force their women to abort by the hundreds of millions.
         
        Man, you're dumb. This is way beyond self-delusion. This is stupidity on an epic scale.

        These guys ain't castrating any Africans:

        https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/news/1024/media/images/66643000/jpg/_66643953_66643951.jpg
      63. Anonymous[532] • Disclaimer says:
        @neutral
        It will be opposite side that will have a problem. Chinese fertility rates are low, African fertility is not. Along with that China needs Africa for its resources and it will be forced by politics to open its door to ever increasing number of Africans, otherwise America will attack China for being racist.

        No, America will not attack China for anything. China has nuclear ICBMs. America will bitch and moan and introduce meaningless resolutions.

        China DGAF.

        Africa has the critical rare earth minerals China needs, and some of the best agricultural land on earth. They will take it. They have learned from the white man’s mistakes.

        • Replies: @Art Deco
        Africa has the critical rare earth minerals China needs, and some of the best agricultural land on earth. They will take it. They have learned from the white man’s mistakes

        If they actually have, they won't bother with attempting to maintain long-distance dependencies, most particularly in pursuit of 'agricultural land' when agricultural land is everywhere and agricultural produce accounts for a low-single-digit share of any advanced country's output.
      64. Anonymous[532] • Disclaimer says:
        @Anonymous
        I don't think whites on the whole have handled their settlement of South Africa very well and have not managed their relations with the Bantu population effectively.

        The history of South Africa is frankly a case study on how NOT to go about settling a distant land.

        The Boer wanted to stay White. But he also wanted his peculiar culture and his kindertaal Afrikaans and his God-Damned Dutch Reformed Church and his comfortable financial future and to not have to do his own shit-work. These desires came before thinking racially.

        That goes for Rhodesia too. But in some ways more so. In both cases had they brought in more whites and been willing to pay white wages they could have had sufficient numbers.

      65. Question: The Sahara has only served as a demographic boundary for the past 5,000 years. How is it then that northern Africans are caucasoid? Was there a major displacement of the original N. A. population?

        • Replies: @BB753
        Because Africa is a huge continent. It's as absurd as wondering why Middle - Easterners and East Asians differ so much.
      66. In Africa today what is the life expectancy of a Pygmy with albinism ?

        • Replies: @danand

        "In Africa today what is the life expectancy of a Pygmy with albinism ?"

         
        They Live, seems height advantaged for a pygmy, and more pigmented than your typical albino; but suspension (with pay) is a might harsh just for expressing who one feels they need to identify as:

        "Miami PD suspends white officer who begins identifying as ‘black’"

         
        https://youtu.be/JXUvJdXLpLU
      67. @A'm on
        I took articulatory phonetics in the linguistics department at UCLA in the 1970s. The final exam was pronouncing words containing every sound in every language in the world. Surprisingly, the clicks were not the most difficult.

        Is there a “The quick brown fox…” style paragraph (or longer) which has all possible sounds from all languages? Would be fun to try and learn.

        Clicks seem to come quite naturally – when my kid was learn was learning to speak he would substitute ‘nk’ at the end of a word with a click.

      68. @Omegabooks
        Great post! thanks! Now do one about how and why the "san" (Khoisan) bushmen speak with clicks. I mean, how in the world can anyone speak with click consonants? (inspired by the movie series "The Gods Must Be Crazy"...love the click speaking! !Xi one of my fave movie characters).

        A fascinating aspect of this is that the click languages are correlated with Khoi/San genetic heritage which seems to have split off from the rest of humanity some 250,000 years ago.

        This means that with the help of ancient DNA analysis, we can trace linguistic features back over 200,000 years.

        Interestingly, Khoi/San clicks became also incorporated into South African Bantu languages such as Xhosa and Zulu when Bantu invaders took Khoi/San women after killing their menfolk, probably within the past 1,000 years. The Xhosa and Zulu themselves are, of course, well aware of their own history, only squeamish Western “anthropologists” in the late 20th and early 21st centuries prefer to gloss over the brutal realities of the old Bantu expansion.

        (BTW – where and when exactly did the Bantus pick up lactose tolerance? This may have happened only after they had reached East Africa where they encountered cattle raising groups. Are today’s West African Bantus lactose tolerant?)

        In traditional linguistics, the “comparative method” of comparing related present and historical languages to gain insights as to their antecedents at most provides clues as to language features with a time horizon of at most 10,000 years. Starostin has done interesting work on this with his “Nostratic” hypothesis of an ancient connection linking most of the world’s major language groups including the native American Na-Dene languages.

        • Replies: @Autochthon
        https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/gfx/news/hires/2017/590c6b5921a88.jpg
      69. @res
        Thanks for the details. Full paper is also at Reich's site:
        https://reich.hms.harvard.edu/sites/reich.hms.harvard.edu/files/inline-files/Shum_Laka_published_online_0.pdf

        The full data (2.4 GB compressed) is available at https://reich.hms.harvard.edu/datasets

        I'm not seeing an easily embeddable copy of Figure 4 anywhere (anyone?). Is this the alternate phylogeny you meant?

        https://media.springernature.com/full/springer-static/esm/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41586-020-1929-1/MediaObjects/41586_2020_1929_Fig9_ESM.jpg

        Reich’s graph is closely associated with a map of Africa on the same page.

        “Hunter-gatherer” is apparently PC-speak for “pygmy.”

        One recalls that the former president of Gabon, 5’0″ Omar Bongo, prohibited all use of the word “pygmy.” In 2020, the writ of Gabonese law runs deep into U.S. universities.

      70. @Brian Reilly
        If the population of sub-Saharan Africa increases as some forecast (see Sailer's most Important Graph, etc.) and the means to leave increases at the same pace, and the willingness/political ability to prevent immigration in Europe and the US continues on present course, why do you think that there will NOT be a huge out migration of sub-Saharan blacks to the rest of the habitable world? If blacks take over the administration of European nations, what makes you think that the administrative skill evinced in black administration elsewhere will be effective at border closing?

        Think also about Chinese influence in African administration. It is my impression that Chinese administrators and investors, and those Chinese associated therewith, don't care too much about Africans, or Europeans. If the Chinese influence is as strong as some report, and if the Chinese want to have some warm, wet, mineral laden territory without the people who used to live there, then we might find that Chinese people facilitating the movement of Africans to places that the Chinese are not interested in. Like, say, Berlin or Mexico, Chicago, or Atlanta. Or Heaven, if the cost of trans-oceanic transportation of exportable undersireables is too high for the Han pocketbook.

        My nephew (20 year old white lad. Smart but not a genius) will see some amazing changes if he lives to see his expected 80 or so years. And his kids? Might not make 60.

        Trading infrastructure for natural resources is one thing. Regime change and genocide is another. Those are the traditional domains of Western powers (I regret to inform you). What makes you think China will be recognizable as China in 60 years?

        • Replies: @Charles Erwin Wilson 3

        Regime change and genocide is another. Those are the traditional domains of Western powers (I regret to inform you).
         
        Right! Because genocide never happened except when Western powers did it. E.g., the Hutu and Tutsi definitely did not engage in genocide. It was all due to Western manipulation of the Hutu and Tutsi, right Spanky?
      71. @Eagle Eye
        A fascinating aspect of this is that the click languages are correlated with Khoi/San genetic heritage which seems to have split off from the rest of humanity some 250,000 years ago.

        This means that with the help of ancient DNA analysis, we can trace linguistic features back over 200,000 years.

        Interestingly, Khoi/San clicks became also incorporated into South African Bantu languages such as Xhosa and Zulu when Bantu invaders took Khoi/San women after killing their menfolk, probably within the past 1,000 years. The Xhosa and Zulu themselves are, of course, well aware of their own history, only squeamish Western "anthropologists" in the late 20th and early 21st centuries prefer to gloss over the brutal realities of the old Bantu expansion.

        (BTW - where and when exactly did the Bantus pick up lactose tolerance? This may have happened only after they had reached East Africa where they encountered cattle raising groups. Are today's West African Bantus lactose tolerant?)

        In traditional linguistics, the "comparative method" of comparing related present and historical languages to gain insights as to their antecedents at most provides clues as to language features with a time horizon of at most 10,000 years. Starostin has done interesting work on this with his "Nostratic" hypothesis of an ancient connection linking most of the world's major language groups including the native American Na-Dene languages.

        • Replies: @Eagle Eye
        Thanks - was sure somebody here would have the answer at his fingertips.

        Interesting additional point re immune system. One forgets that non-Africans stayed away from much of sub-Saharan Africa until the 19th century due to endemic disease.

        Not sure what the linked paper means by saying "Bantu-speaking people contributed 30% of African genome of present-day African-Americans." Where do the other 70% come from? Surely the African ancestors were predominantly from Western Africa, thus mostly Bantu or at least part of the wider Niger-Congo linguistic group?
      72. @(((They))) Live
        In Africa today what is the life expectancy of a Pygmy with albinism ?

        “In Africa today what is the life expectancy of a Pygmy with albinism ?”

        They Live, seems height advantaged for a pygmy, and more pigmented than your typical albino; but suspension (with pay) is a might harsh just for expressing who one feels they need to identify as:

        “Miami PD suspends white officer who begins identifying as ‘black’”

        • Replies: @BB753
        The guy should have totally identified as a Jewish Black woman, like the judge jokingly said! Go trans or die!
      73. @J.Ross
        "It's all very preliminary."
        Two random mass shootings in downtown Seattle, one at 3 and the other at 5. Nothing is known about the suspect or suspects, who are still at large. Seattle has exactly the gun laws you would expect and is about as blue as San Antonio, St Louis, and Hawaii, which also recently had shootings, although none having double incidents so close together.
        https://twitter.com/MichaelKIRO7/status/1220154329107054592?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fd-35225442604268296933.ampproject.net%2F2001071857360%2Fframe.html

        Follow-up: no one could have foreseen.
        https://postimg.cc/YvH0r1fj

        The suspects still at large are Marquise Latrelle Tolbert, 24, and William Ray Tolliver, 24. Police said both are armed and dangerous. Mayor Jenny Durkan said a third shooter was arrested.
        The third suspect, Jamel Linonell Jackson, 21, was arrested at the scene for being a felon with a gun. Police found him shot and Jackson was booked at 10:19 p.m. Wednesday after being released from Harborview Medical Center.

        https://www.kiro7.com/news/local/multiple-people-shot-downtown-seattle-police-say/IECNIRBVOZFYTAEJNDDUUQI4QI/

      74. @jamie b.
        Question: The Sahara has only served as a demographic boundary for the past 5,000 years. How is it then that northern Africans are caucasoid? Was there a major displacement of the original N. A. population?

        Because Africa is a huge continent. It’s as absurd as wondering why Middle – Easterners and East Asians differ so much.

        • Replies: @jamie b.
        Major racial divisions result either from geographic boundaries or areas of sparse population or low migration. This includes the division between Middle Easterners and East Asians. Unfortunately, I can't seem to copy/paste maps here, but you can find a good map of migration rates here (figure 4)...

        https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337429197_Race_Differences_A_Very_Brief_Review
      75. @Autochthon
        https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/gfx/news/hires/2017/590c6b5921a88.jpg

        Thanks – was sure somebody here would have the answer at his fingertips.

        Interesting additional point re immune system. One forgets that non-Africans stayed away from much of sub-Saharan Africa until the 19th century due to endemic disease.

        Not sure what the linked paper means by saying “Bantu-speaking people contributed 30% of African genome of present-day African-Americans.” Where do the other 70% come from? Surely the African ancestors were predominantly from Western Africa, thus mostly Bantu or at least part of the wider Niger-Congo linguistic group?

      76. @danand

        "In Africa today what is the life expectancy of a Pygmy with albinism ?"

         
        They Live, seems height advantaged for a pygmy, and more pigmented than your typical albino; but suspension (with pay) is a might harsh just for expressing who one feels they need to identify as:

        "Miami PD suspends white officer who begins identifying as ‘black’"

         
        https://youtu.be/JXUvJdXLpLU

        The guy should have totally identified as a Jewish Black woman, like the judge jokingly said! Go trans or die!

      77. @Hypnotoad666
        Do you think the New York Times specifically trains its reporters to write like hacks? Or is that just how an SJW automatically writes?

        Do you think the New York Times specifically trains its reporters to write like hacks? Or is that just how an SJW automatically writes?

        To the first question, no. To the second question, yes. You have to have a profound intellectual deficiency to adopt the SJW perspective (no facts, no reason, and, especially, no morals).

      78. @Morris Applebaum IV
        I don't think there will be a dramatic "New Bantu Expansion" Even a Merkel wouldn't let in millions of sub-Saharan Africans at once. The amounts will probably continue to be comparatively small, 100,000 or so a year in a giant country like the USA. However, with Whites (and East Asians) losing 1/4 each generation in what amounts to a mass suicide, whoever is breeding is in very good shape.

        non-Black Muslims are well on their way towards taking over Europe and will probably restrict sub-Saharan African immigration.

        I just hope my kids and future grandchildren can adapt to whatever is coming over the rest of the century. That's about all most of us can do, try to help your family navigate through the craziness.

        I just hope my kids and future grandchildren can adapt to whatever is coming over the rest of the century. That’s about all most of us can do, try to help your family navigate through the craziness.

        Well, that is one strategy. Another one is to resist the craziness. Maybe we can recover our republic, which is a different strategy. Finally, we can claim self-determination and obtain a separation, and then a divorce.

      79. @Brian Reilly
        If the population of sub-Saharan Africa increases as some forecast (see Sailer's most Important Graph, etc.) and the means to leave increases at the same pace, and the willingness/political ability to prevent immigration in Europe and the US continues on present course, why do you think that there will NOT be a huge out migration of sub-Saharan blacks to the rest of the habitable world? If blacks take over the administration of European nations, what makes you think that the administrative skill evinced in black administration elsewhere will be effective at border closing?

        Think also about Chinese influence in African administration. It is my impression that Chinese administrators and investors, and those Chinese associated therewith, don't care too much about Africans, or Europeans. If the Chinese influence is as strong as some report, and if the Chinese want to have some warm, wet, mineral laden territory without the people who used to live there, then we might find that Chinese people facilitating the movement of Africans to places that the Chinese are not interested in. Like, say, Berlin or Mexico, Chicago, or Atlanta. Or Heaven, if the cost of trans-oceanic transportation of exportable undersireables is too high for the Han pocketbook.

        My nephew (20 year old white lad. Smart but not a genius) will see some amazing changes if he lives to see his expected 80 or so years. And his kids? Might not make 60.

        the means to leave increases at the same pace, and the willingness/political ability to prevent immigration in Europe and the US continues on present course

        Your conjectures will not happen. Trump is the evidence of the turning of the tide. Your nephew will see amazing changes, but they will not be changes projected from the current trajectory.

        There are few certainties, but the failure of static analysis to correctly predict the future is certain.

        Cheer up. Things will not be as bad as you think.

        • Replies: @Autochthon
        Ho ho! Trump's a turnin' the tide, in "greater numbers than ever before" by raising a "red flag" and by ending "foreign entanglements."

        Ho ho ho!
      80. @Redneck farmer
        Meant to hit LOL. Anyway, it's a GOOD troll.

        Meant to hit LOL. Anyway, it’s a GOOD troll.

        Thanks. I never go near those buttons, especially on a tablet. Too treacherous.

      81. @JohnPlywood
        There was no "Yamnaya (Aryan)" replacement in Europe.

        1.) Yamnaya weren't Aryan. The Aryan (Indo-Iranian) languages are newer formed after Yamnaya went extinct.

        2.) Yamnaya belonted to clades of R1b are extremely rare outside of Southeastern Europe, where it is a minority today. Most Europeans carry clades of R1b or R1a that could not have come from Yamnaya.

        http://eurogenes.blogspot.com/2019/09/is-yamnaya-overrated.html


        If anything it was Yamnaya who were replaced by Aryans (R1a Indo Iranians).

        Yamnaya meaning aryan obviously meaning speakers of proto-indoeuropean.

        • Replies: @JohnPlywood
        Aryan is a late indo European language family, dummy. It has nothing to do with proto-indo-European.
      82. @Hapalong Cassidy
        I wonder if this “ghost” population is actually another hominid species altogether, similar to the Neanderthals and Denisovans. I remember awhile ago they were able to trace the DNA of a West African man to a male ancestor that lived over 400000 years ago, which is much farther back than any identified Homo Sapiens groups. It’s possible that this was the “ghost” hominid species and that some HS migrated westward and intermingled with this species.

        I remember that too and found it fascinating.

      83. “Remember how I’ve been pointing out for years that New York Times reporters have developed an upside-down style in which they make the beginning of their articles on potentially politically incorrect topics as boring as possible and only slip in the interesting bits toward the end, long after most NYT subscribers have moved on, reassured that reality is as uninteresting as they assumed?”

        And you can prove this how, Mr. Sailer? Although, at least they mention such things, unlike yourself when it comes to certain topics. You would rather be cagey.

      84. @BB753
        Because Africa is a huge continent. It's as absurd as wondering why Middle - Easterners and East Asians differ so much.

        Major racial divisions result either from geographic boundaries or areas of sparse population or low migration. This includes the division between Middle Easterners and East Asians. Unfortunately, I can’t seem to copy/paste maps here, but you can find a good map of migration rates here (figure 4)…

        https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337429197_Race_Differences_A_Very_Brief_Review

        • Replies: @BB753
        I'd venture to say that tens of thousands of miles of distance before air-travel count as a major barrier.
      85. @Charles Erwin Wilson 3

        the means to leave increases at the same pace, and the willingness/political ability to prevent immigration in Europe and the US continues on present course
         
        Your conjectures will not happen. Trump is the evidence of the turning of the tide. Your nephew will see amazing changes, but they will not be changes projected from the current trajectory.

        There are few certainties, but the failure of static analysis to correctly predict the future is certain.

        Cheer up. Things will not be as bad as you think.

        Ho ho! Trump’s a turnin’ the tide, in “greater numbers than ever before” by raising a “red flag” and by ending “foreign entanglements.”

        Ho ho ho!

      86. @Fun
        Trading infrastructure for natural resources is one thing. Regime change and genocide is another. Those are the traditional domains of Western powers (I regret to inform you). What makes you think China will be recognizable as China in 60 years?

        Regime change and genocide is another. Those are the traditional domains of Western powers (I regret to inform you).

        Right! Because genocide never happened except when Western powers did it. E.g., the Hutu and Tutsi definitely did not engage in genocide. It was all due to Western manipulation of the Hutu and Tutsi, right Spanky?

      87. @Reg Cæsar
        Reichs are familiar with pygmies.

        http://www4.pictures.zimbio.com/gi/Robert+Reich+RWDatEqBdS-m.jpg

        https://www.berkeleyside.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Screen-Shot-2015-05-14-at-9.01.35-PM-720x482.png

        https://www2.palomar.edu/pages/sse/files/2018/12/2018-11-16-robert-reich-k-1-imgp8532_45218731764_o-1024x683.jpg


        Sorry, no shots of this Reich with George Stigler, Paul Volcker or John Kenneth Galbraith.

        Talk about chopping a guy off at the knees.

      88. @jamie b.
        Major racial divisions result either from geographic boundaries or areas of sparse population or low migration. This includes the division between Middle Easterners and East Asians. Unfortunately, I can't seem to copy/paste maps here, but you can find a good map of migration rates here (figure 4)...

        https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337429197_Race_Differences_A_Very_Brief_Review

        I’d venture to say that tens of thousands of miles of distance before air-travel count as a major barrier.

        • Replies: @jamie b.
        If you look at the map, it's immediately clear that mere distance is not one of the barriers that defines race.
      89. @BB753
        I'd venture to say that tens of thousands of miles of distance before air-travel count as a major barrier.

        If you look at the map, it’s immediately clear that mere distance is not one of the barriers that defines race.

        • Replies: @BB753
        Don't look at a map, start trekking on foot from Vladivostok to Dubai and report back.
      90. @Anonymous
        No, America will not attack China for anything. China has nuclear ICBMs. America will bitch and moan and introduce meaningless resolutions.

        China DGAF.

        Africa has the critical rare earth minerals China needs, and some of the best agricultural land on earth. They will take it. They have learned from the white man’s mistakes.

        Africa has the critical rare earth minerals China needs, and some of the best agricultural land on earth. They will take it. They have learned from the white man’s mistakes

        If they actually have, they won’t bother with attempting to maintain long-distance dependencies, most particularly in pursuit of ‘agricultural land’ when agricultural land is everywhere and agricultural produce accounts for a low-single-digit share of any advanced country’s output.

        • Replies: @Rob
        Agriculture accounts for a few percent of output today, with the US producing tremendous, exported surpluses. In the future, with aquifers depleted and a few decades more global warming, and (possibly) fertilizer being much more expensive if natural gas either can’t be used or is much more expensive. Like everything else, the price of food depends on the balance between supply and demand. The demand for food is likely inelastic, so cut supply and agricultural goods will account for more of the economy.
      91. @Art Deco
        Africa has the critical rare earth minerals China needs, and some of the best agricultural land on earth. They will take it. They have learned from the white man’s mistakes

        If they actually have, they won't bother with attempting to maintain long-distance dependencies, most particularly in pursuit of 'agricultural land' when agricultural land is everywhere and agricultural produce accounts for a low-single-digit share of any advanced country's output.

        Agriculture accounts for a few percent of output today, with the US producing tremendous, exported surpluses. In the future, with aquifers depleted and a few decades more global warming, and (possibly) fertilizer being much more expensive if natural gas either can’t be used or is much more expensive. Like everything else, the price of food depends on the balance between supply and demand. The demand for food is likely inelastic, so cut supply and agricultural goods will account for more of the economy.

        • Replies: @res

        The demand for food is likely inelastic
         
        I'm not sure about that now given the obesity epidemic. It was probably more true historically.
        , @Anonymous
        Right. It’s like my “crazy” Uncle Thickstun said: “Kid, you want to be a grocer, or a plumber, or an undertaker. Everyone only has to do three things. Eat, shit, and die”.

        (His real name was Thurston, but everyone called him Thickstun, presumably for reasons similar to why Don Johnson was “Beer Can”, and David Cassidy was “Donk”. But I have no first hand knowledge. )
        , @mikesmith
        Data from the UK shows that Brits in the 1940's consumed about 2900 calories (kilocalories) per capita yet were slimmer than today. Now they consume quite a bit less per capita but are fatter, because technology has advanced to the point where people can exert much less physical activity to survive. If people must return to more active lifestyles in a post-fossi fuels future, they will be slimmer and healthier, but per capita food production will have to rise. Of course, the UK is already a net food importer, and I suspect that is true of most countries today. A precarious situation, IMO.
        , @mikesmith
        "and agricultural produce accounts for a low-single-digit share of any advanced country’s output." -- Unless there are crop failures. Then food prices skyrocket and, as they do, so does their share of GDP. GDP is *usually* meaningful, but highly artificial. That is why Soviet Russia's low GDP did not prevent it from defeating the German Wehrmacht, and why America's "Great Depression of 1946" was noticed only by government statisticians as war production plummeted. What a country produces (or does not produce) matters, not just the "bottom line" GDP number.
      92. @Rob
        Agriculture accounts for a few percent of output today, with the US producing tremendous, exported surpluses. In the future, with aquifers depleted and a few decades more global warming, and (possibly) fertilizer being much more expensive if natural gas either can’t be used or is much more expensive. Like everything else, the price of food depends on the balance between supply and demand. The demand for food is likely inelastic, so cut supply and agricultural goods will account for more of the economy.

        The demand for food is likely inelastic

        I’m not sure about that now given the obesity epidemic. It was probably more true historically.

        • Replies: @Rob
        Yeah, good point.
      93. Anonymous[243] • Disclaimer says:
        @Rob
        Agriculture accounts for a few percent of output today, with the US producing tremendous, exported surpluses. In the future, with aquifers depleted and a few decades more global warming, and (possibly) fertilizer being much more expensive if natural gas either can’t be used or is much more expensive. Like everything else, the price of food depends on the balance between supply and demand. The demand for food is likely inelastic, so cut supply and agricultural goods will account for more of the economy.

        Right. It’s like my “crazy” Uncle Thickstun said: “Kid, you want to be a grocer, or a plumber, or an undertaker. Everyone only has to do three things. Eat, shit, and die”.

        (His real name was Thurston, but everyone called him Thickstun, presumably for reasons similar to why Don Johnson was “Beer Can”, and David Cassidy was “Donk”. But I have no first hand knowledge. )

      94. @res

        The demand for food is likely inelastic
         
        I'm not sure about that now given the obesity epidemic. It was probably more true historically.

        Yeah, good point.

      95. @Pheasant
        Yamnaya meaning aryan obviously meaning speakers of proto-indoeuropean.

        Aryan is a late indo European language family, dummy. It has nothing to do with proto-indo-European.

        • Replies: @mikesmith
        "Indo-European" is just the "peecee" term for Aryan, plain and simple. PIE simply refers to the original (meaning of "proto") Aryan mother tongue, which, of course, was unwritten.
      96. @jamie b.
        If you look at the map, it's immediately clear that mere distance is not one of the barriers that defines race.

        Don’t look at a map, start trekking on foot from Vladivostok to Dubai and report back.

        • Replies: @jamie b.

        Don’t look at a map
         
        Why?

        start trekking on foot from Vladivostok to Dubai
         
        Few (if any) humans hiked all the way from central Asia, thru the Bering straight, and into America in in one long journey. Gene flow probably has much more to do with bands of people migrating over generations. And that's kinda what the map is about.
      97. Steve Sailer wrote: “an upside-down style in which they make the beginning of their articles on potentially politically incorrect topics as boring as possible and only slip in the interesting bits toward the end….’ — That might be the only way to get the story past the editor!

      98. @JohnPlywood
        Aryan is a late indo European language family, dummy. It has nothing to do with proto-indo-European.

        “Indo-European” is just the “peecee” term for Aryan, plain and simple. PIE simply refers to the original (meaning of “proto”) Aryan mother tongue, which, of course, was unwritten.

        • Replies: @JohnPlywood
        No it isn't, lay off the crack. Indo-Aryan emerged WAY after Indo-European (not to mention proto-Indo European). Indo Aryan is a satem language that is relatively recent; proto-indo European was a super-different centum language and far older. There were no "Aryans" when the proto-Indo-Europeans were around, and nobody spoke anything resembling an "Aryan" language until the 2nd century BC. That's not a "peecee" conspiracy as so many tards on this site seem to believe, it's a basic linguistic fact.
      99. @Rob
        Agriculture accounts for a few percent of output today, with the US producing tremendous, exported surpluses. In the future, with aquifers depleted and a few decades more global warming, and (possibly) fertilizer being much more expensive if natural gas either can’t be used or is much more expensive. Like everything else, the price of food depends on the balance between supply and demand. The demand for food is likely inelastic, so cut supply and agricultural goods will account for more of the economy.

        Data from the UK shows that Brits in the 1940’s consumed about 2900 calories (kilocalories) per capita yet were slimmer than today. Now they consume quite a bit less per capita but are fatter, because technology has advanced to the point where people can exert much less physical activity to survive. If people must return to more active lifestyles in a post-fossi fuels future, they will be slimmer and healthier, but per capita food production will have to rise. Of course, the UK is already a net food importer, and I suspect that is true of most countries today. A precarious situation, IMO.

      100. @Rob
        Agriculture accounts for a few percent of output today, with the US producing tremendous, exported surpluses. In the future, with aquifers depleted and a few decades more global warming, and (possibly) fertilizer being much more expensive if natural gas either can’t be used or is much more expensive. Like everything else, the price of food depends on the balance between supply and demand. The demand for food is likely inelastic, so cut supply and agricultural goods will account for more of the economy.

        “and agricultural produce accounts for a low-single-digit share of any advanced country’s output.” — Unless there are crop failures. Then food prices skyrocket and, as they do, so does their share of GDP. GDP is *usually* meaningful, but highly artificial. That is why Soviet Russia’s low GDP did not prevent it from defeating the German Wehrmacht, and why America’s “Great Depression of 1946” was noticed only by government statisticians as war production plummeted. What a country produces (or does not produce) matters, not just the “bottom line” GDP number.

      101. @mikesmith
        "Indo-European" is just the "peecee" term for Aryan, plain and simple. PIE simply refers to the original (meaning of "proto") Aryan mother tongue, which, of course, was unwritten.

        No it isn’t, lay off the crack. Indo-Aryan emerged WAY after Indo-European (not to mention proto-Indo European). Indo Aryan is a satem language that is relatively recent; proto-indo European was a super-different centum language and far older. There were no “Aryans” when the proto-Indo-Europeans were around, and nobody spoke anything resembling an “Aryan” language until the 2nd century BC. That’s not a “peecee” conspiracy as so many tards on this site seem to believe, it’s a basic linguistic fact.

      102. @BB753
        Don't look at a map, start trekking on foot from Vladivostok to Dubai and report back.

        Don’t look at a map

        Why?

        start trekking on foot from Vladivostok to Dubai

        Few (if any) humans hiked all the way from central Asia, thru the Bering straight, and into America in in one long journey. Gene flow probably has much more to do with bands of people migrating over generations. And that’s kinda what the map is about.

      103. @Jake
        If they have the power and feel the need to do so, the Chinese will castrate hundreds of millions of black Africans and force their women to abort by the hundreds of millions.

        If they have the power and feel the need to do so, the Chinese will castrate hundreds of millions of black Africans and force their women to abort by the hundreds of millions.

        Man, you’re dumb. This is way beyond self-delusion. This is stupidity on an epic scale.

        These guys ain’t castrating any Africans:

      104. @neutral
        It will be opposite side that will have a problem. Chinese fertility rates are low, African fertility is not. Along with that China needs Africa for its resources and it will be forced by politics to open its door to ever increasing number of Africans, otherwise America will attack China for being racist.

        America will attack China for being racist.

        I doubt the average Chinese is as racist as you are:

        • Replies: @MEH 0910
        https://i.4pcdn.org/pol/1552165911037.png

        https://i.4pcdn.org/pol/1556167198873.jpg
        https://i.4pcdn.org/pol/1552165984286.png
      105. @Okechukwu

        America will attack China for being racist.
         
        I doubt the average Chinese is as racist as you are:

        https://youtu.be/8XHS_ftUARI


        [MORE]

      Comments are closed.

      Subscribe to All Steve Sailer Comments via RSS