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 TeasersPaul Craig Roberts Blogview

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61 years ago Walter M. Miller Jr. published A Canticle for Leibowitz. The story spans thousands of years as humans rebuild civilization after a devastating nuclear war. Among the episodes is a conflict between warring nomads and a settled people who rely on cunning instead of arms and introduce hoof and mouth disease into the herds of the nomads. I was reminded of this as I read this account in RT of what appears to be a worsening situation with the coronavirus in China. China’s President Xi Jinping has described the situation as “grave” with the spread of infection accelerating. https://www.rt.com/news/479181-xi-china-coronavirus-win/

Could this be an engineered virus or a weaponized one that got loose from Chinese biolabs?

Could this be biological warfare deliberately unleashed on China to destabilize the government or to leave the country in chaos so that it cannot respond to an attack?

Or is the story just media hype?

Would it be prudent to stop all travel to and from China and to quarantine recent arrivals from China to prevent the spread of something that could be difficult to control?

Globalism, a darling of neoliberals, endangers us all. The possible importation of pandemics is another external cost of the global economy.

• Category: Foreign Policy • Tags: China, Disease, Globalism, Neoliberalism 
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Germany’s War, Chapter 6: The German Expellees by John Wear

The Allies’ Crimes Exceed Those of the Third Reich

At the end of World War II in violation of the Atlantic Charter, between 12 and 19 million Germans were expelled from their long-established homes in East Prussia, Pomerania, Brandenburg, Silesia, Memel and the Baltic states, Danzig, Poland, Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland), Hungary, Yugoslavia, and Romania. This mass expulsion of ethnic Germans from their homes was going on while the Nuremberg trials were prosecuting officials of the German Third Reich for mass deportations of Jews and Gypsies. The allied expulsions of Germans exceeds in number the deportations by the Third Reich. Unlike the Israelis, the German government does not demand reparations for the dispossessed Germans. Instead of being compensated for their dispossession, the Germans pay compensation to the Jews, and the amount rises over time.

The number of Germans who died from the crimes inflicted on them during the expulsions rival the number of holocaust victims and is better documented. Estimates are that 25% of German expellees died in the process. That could be as many as 4,750,000. While as many as nearly 5 million German expellees were dying from the starvation, exposure, and murder that characterized their deportation, the French chief prosecutor at Nuremberg sanctimoniously declared deportations by the Third Reich to be “one of the horrors of our century.”

During World War II the Americans expelled Japanese-Americans from their homes and businesses and kept them in concentration camps.

The Israelis have been deporting Palestinians from Palestine since 1947. Gaza today is the largest concentration camp in world history.

Stalin deported millions of Russians to the Gulags where they died from over-work, under-nourishment, and exposure.

But only Germans were punished for deportations.

The post-war mass deportations of Germans supports Hitler’s view that ethnic Germans needed to be gathered into one territory for their protection. Today ethnic Germans are being displaced in their own country by Third World peoples brought into Germany by Germany’s anti-German political leadership. Indeed, all of Europe has anti-ethnic European leadership. The anti-European leaders of Europe are erasing Europe. This is the last century of European peoples. By the end of this century, European people and European culture will not exist. A leaderless people cannot survive.

While reading chapter 6, keep in mind that you are not reading John Wear’s opinion. You are reading facts documented by many historians and published by Harvard University Press, Yale University Press, Basic Books, and Palgrave Macmillan.

The 6th Chapter of Wear’s book, Germany’s War, is posted here: https://www.paulcraigroberts.org/2020/01/24/germanys-war-chapter-6-the-german-expellees/

“The sins of the fathers shall be visited upon the sons.”

• Category: History • Tags: American Media, Nazi Germany, World War II 
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Europe no longer exists except as a geographical entity. The peoples have been debased into a Tower of Babel. The “leadership” of Europe actually stands with the immigrant-invaders against the European peoples who are ceasing to exist.

The same is happening to Americans.

All white people have been thrown into the trash bin of history. And they accept it. They are too afraid not to. If they object, they are branded “white supremacists,” “racists,” and “Trump deplorables.” White people won’t support their own kind. Every other race does. Thus, white people are self-terminating.

The French are closest to self-inflicted extinction. A French author, Renaud Camus, received a two month suspended prison sentence for saying that “Immigration has become an invasion.” The French, Germans, and the Swedes are experiencing The Camp of the Saints.

Americans are also being coerced into insanity. A Denver Post columnist was fired for saying correctly : “There are only two sexes, identified by an XX or XY chromosome. That is the very definition of binary.” This statement of scientific fact was all it took to be fired. So much for a free press at the Denver Post, a controlled explanation propaganda organization.




• Category: Foreign Policy • Tags: EU, Immigration, Political Correctness 
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Did Washington sic Brazil’s gangster president Bolsonaro on journalist Glenn Greenwald because Greenwald brought to light Edward Snowden’s evidence of NSA spying on the world?

In Brazil unfavorable reporting on the gangster government is being labeled a “cybercrime.” Greenwald was cleared by the Brazilian police and Supreme Court, but the lawless Bolsonaro is not deterred by mere law.

The New Yorker asked Greenwald: “The case against you relies in part on the claim that you helped in ‘facilitating the commission of a crime.’ Did you do anything to encourage the hacking of cell phones or other devices?”

Greenwald’s answer: “No. In fact, when the source first talked to me, he had already obtained all the material that he ended up providing us, making it logically impossible for me to have in any way participated in that act. And the federal police, just a few months ago, concluded that not only was there no evidence that I committed any crimes but much to the contrary, I conducted myself, in their words, with ‘extreme levels of professionalism and caution,’ to make sure that I didn’t get ensnared in any criminal activity.”

The New Yorker asked: “If that’s the case, how do you understand what has happened in the last couple of months, from the federal police determining that to the charges today?”

The answer: “I think that what a lot of people are not fully understanding about Brazil is that there are a lot of people in the government, beginning with the President himself, who explicitly want a resurrection of the military dictatorship that ruled the country until 1985. They are not joking about it. They are genuine authoritarians who don’t believe in democracy, don’t believe in basic freedoms, and don’t believe in a free press. And all they know is brute force. They want a return to that military regime. The fact that the federal police said there was no evidence I committed a crime, and the fact that the Supreme Court barred them from investigating me, because the Court said it was an infringement on a free press for them to do so, doesn’t matter to them. They just concocted a theory to try and use brute force to criminalize what I was doing, probably to intimidate other journalists as much as to attack me and punish me for the reporting.”

Another journalist, Eric Striker, whose reporting authorities resent, was illegally detained and harassed at Pittsburgh’s airport.



The digital revolution is a weapon in the hands of criminal governments that will use it to exterminate truth. Already it is extremely difficult to get any truthful information. Soon it will be impossible. Indeed, the very concept of truth is denied by the intellectual operatives of The Matrix.

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In yesterday’s column, “Making Sense of the Impeachment Charges,” I pointed out that the three impeachments of presidents by the House of Representatives were political acts. Only in the case of Bill Clinton was there a real offense. Clinton did lie under oath. However, the Senate did not regard lying about a sexual affair as rising to the level of a “high crime” and refused to convict. Unless enough Republican Senators can be threatened by the FBI or bribed by the military/security complex, the Republican Senate will not convict Trump.

The Democrats know this. The question is why did the Democrats go for impeachment? An obvious answer is to throw enough mud in hopes that some of it sticks and reduces Trump’s reelection chances.

That is a likely reason. Another reason that we don’t hear much about is that a number of prominent Democrats are under investigation by the Department of Justice for felonies committed in their orchestration of the Russiagate hoax. This investigation could easily produce indictments of such prominent Democrats as Hillary Clinton. Trump’s conviction in the Senate could stop indictments from the Barr-Durham investigation, but even a failed impeachment can be used as a shield against indictments. Democrats can claim that charges against them are just political payback for their impeachment of Trump.

Much of the public would believe it. With the country already split by Russiagate and the impeachment, indictments of Democrats would further spread disunity. Republicans are less inclined to encourage disunity than Democrats. I can hear many Republicans arguing that as impeachment failed, the party is well-positioned and should not split the country by indicting highly placed Democrats. In this way even a failed impeachment serves the Democrats.

• Category: Ideology • Tags: Democratic Party, Donald Trump, Russiagate, Ukraine 
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Prior to the impeachment of Trump, not by Congress as presstitutes report but by self-interested House Democrats, during the entirety of US history there have been only two attempts to impeach a president—Andrew Johnson in 1868 and 130 years later Bill Clinton in 1998.

Clinton was impeached by House Republicans when he clearly lied under oath by denying his sexual affair with Monica Lewinsky, a White House intern. The Senate refused to convict him. Enough Senators had enough sense to know that lying about a sexual affair, even under oath, did not rise to a “high crime.” Moreover, Senators understood that few men would be inclined to embarrass their wife and daughter, or few women their husband and daughter, by admitting publicly to a sexual affair.

Andrew Johnson, a Tennessee Democrat, stood with the Republican Union of Abe Lincoln. Consequently, Lincoln chose Johnson as his Vice President in his 1864 reelection campaign. When Lincoln was assassinated, Johnson became president.

President Johnson took to heart Lincoln’s emphasis on restoring comity between North and South. Consequently, Johnson opposed the harsh, exploitative, and demeaning policies of the Republican Congress during Reconstruction. He didn’t see how the Union could be restored on the basis of dispossession of Southerners, rape of Southern women, and the infliction of general humiliation on a conquered people.

The fanatical Republican Congress, however, was set on punishment and humiliation of the South. By blocking some of the most extreme Reconstruction measures, Johnson aroused the same enmity against himself as the Republicans had toward the South. A series of disputes between the President and the Republican Congress led to a resolution of impeachment drafted by the Congressional Joint Committee on Reconstruction.

The charges against Johnson were contrived, a product of emotion, like the ones against Trump, and Johnson’s conviction failed by one vote in the Senate. After his term ended in 1869, Johnson ran for the US Senate and won.

Bill Clinton is the only one of the three to be impeached by the House for cause, but enough Senators realized that the cause was not a high crime and refused to convict.

The three presidents who have been impeached are much less guilty of impeachable offences than many who have not been impeached. For example, George W. Bush took America to war based on lies—for example, Saddam Hussein’s weapons of mass destruction. These lies are much more serious than Clinton’s denial of a sexual affair. Bush failed to uphold his duties and violated the US Constitution by suspending habeas corpus and detaining citizens indefinitely without evidence and due process of law. Obama intended to invade Syria on the basis of a lie, for example, Assad’s use of chemical weapons, but was prevented by Russia. Obama escalated Bush’s attack on Constitutionally protected civil liberty by declaring his right to execute US citizens without due process of law. Franklin D. Roosevelt kept knowledge of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor from the US Navy in order to have an infamous event that would allow him to enter the war against Germany. Even Lincoln was guilty of destroying states’ rights set out in the Constitution and launching a war of aggression in order to preserve the empire. There are more examples.

It is paradoxical that real crimes provide less inclination for impeachment than orchestrated fake crimes.

There were 11 contrived articles of impeachment against Johnson. Against Trump there are two. One is that he abused his power as president by asking the president of Ukraine to reopen the investigation of the energy company, on which Obama’s Vice President Biden had placed his son as a very highly paid director. Vice President Biden had forced the previous president of Ukraine to shut down the investigation by firing the prosecutor or otherwise forfeit $1 billion in US aid.

The Democrats have no evidence that Trump offered the Ukrainian president US aid in exchange for political dirt against Biden, and the president of Ukraine said there was no such offer. What would be the point of Trump asking for dirt against Biden when Biden himself boasted before the Council on Foreign Relations that he had forced the Ukrainian President to fire the prosecutor or forfeit $1 billion. https://www.nysun.com/editorials/well-son-of-a-bitch-ukraine-scandal-is-about-biden/90846/ This is common knowledge. Why should Trump have to pay Ukraine for it?

Vice President Biden’s clear, open admission that he did what Democrats falsely accuse Trump of doing is total proof of the utter corruption of the Democratic Party.

Now, let’s suppose the Democrats are correct in order to see how inconsequential and commonplace the charge against Trump would be even if true. The United States government has historically, has always, and is forever telling foreign governments to do this or that or you won’t get any money. This is the commonplace behavior of the United States in its foreign policy, which is not based on normal diplomacy but on bribes, sanctions, threats, and, if the country does not comply, bombings and invasions.

Trump did not tell Ukraine that he was going to sanction, bomb, or invade if Ukraine did not reopen an investigation that was closed entirely on the basis of Biden’s threat to withhold US aid money. If anyone should be facing a charge, it is Biden.

The second charge in Trump’s impeachment is “obstruction of Congress.” The US Constitution gives the President the power to obstruct Congress. Every time a President vetoes a bill, he obstructs Congress. The idea that obstructing Congress is an impeachable offense is insane nonsense. It works only because Americans are ignorant. They do not know what the Constitution says or anything about the balance of powers the Constitution establishes between executive, legislature, and Judiciary.

Similarly, Congress has the power to obstruct a President by refusing to ratify his treaties, by rejecting his budget and spending priorities and by refusing to confirm his appointees in office.

• Category: History, Ideology • Tags: Democratic Party, Donald Trump, Ukraine 
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The first thing to understand is that it is not a trade deal. It is Trump backing off his tariffs when he discovered that the tariffs fall on US goods and American consumers, not on China. Trump is covering his retraction by calling it a trade deal. China’s part of the deal is to agree to purchase the US goods that it already intended to purchase.

The purpose of tariffs is to protect domestic producers from foreign competition by raising the price of imported goods. What Trump, his administration, and the financial press did not understand is that at least half of the US trade deficit with China is the offshored goods produced in China by such corporations as Apple, Nike, and Levi. The offshored production of US global corporations counts as imports when they are brought into the US to be sold to Americans. Thus, the cost of the tariffs were falling on US corporations and US consumers.

Tariffs are not an effective way to bring offshored US manufacturing home. If Trump or any US government wants to bring US manufacturing back to the US from its offshored locations, the way to achieve this result is to change the way the US taxes corporations. The rule would be: If a US corporation produces in the US with US labor for US markets, the firm’s profits are taxed at a low rate. If the corporation produces products for the US market abroad with foreign labor, the tax rate will be high enough to more than wipe out the labor cost savings.

As I have emphasized for years, the offshoring of US manufacturing has inflicted massive external costs on the United States. Middle class jobs have been lost, careers ended, living standards of former US manufacturing workers and families have dropped. The tax base of cities and states has shrunk, causing cutbacks in public services and undermining municipal and state pension funds. You can add to this list. These costs are the true cost of the increased profits from the lower foreign labor and compliance costs. A relatively few executives and shareholders benefited at the expense of a vast number of Americans.

This is the problem that needs to be addressed and corrected.

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The Old Dominion (the Commonwealth of Virginia) produced the most important members of our Founding Fathers and two of the most successful military leaders in history, Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson, but has somehow managed to elect a nutcase for its current governor. His name is Ralph Northam, and he seems to have many screws loose.

To begin with, Northam thinks a Virginia governor can repeal the Second Amendment, which has been consistently protected by the US Supreme Court, and confiscate guns from Virginia gunowners. He has said so many stupid and truculent things that a majority of Virginia counties are against him. He has riled up Virginia gunowners, who are planning a protest in Richmond.

Northam has responded to the protest by declaring a “state of emergency due to potential civil unrest at the Virginia state capitol.” He implies that the protesters are white nationalists who intend “violence, rioting, and insurrection.” Any such, of course, would be the product of groups organized by Northam for those purposes.

Virginia’s downfall is its proximity to Washington DC. Northern Virginia has become non-Virginia. It is full of lobbyists and federal government bureaucrats. These outsiders are taking away the voice of Virginians. The rot extends deep into the state. Charlottesville, the home of the University of Virginia founded by Thomas Jefferson has a liberal progressive tradition. Nikuyah Walker, a black woman, used controversy over the Unite the Right rally to get elected to the city council and was selected by the council as mayor. Walker is truculent and a critic of the city’s progressive leadership, which she believes hides its racism behind a progressive cover. Once again we see progressives have more good intention than sense, and they have put a disruptive force at the head of the city government in Charlottesville and the Commonwealth government in Richmond.

With Northam and Walker tearing apart the unity of another state, the flag of disunity is waving over ever more of “the land of the free.”

• Category: Ideology • Tags: Gun Control, Political Correctness, Virginia 
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Many decades ago there was an issue of Mad comics that portrayed a future time when everything was done by robots and humans had no function. One day the system failed. As it had been eons since humans had to do anything, no one knew how to fix the system. It was Mad comics version of Armageddon.

I think that is where the digital revolution is taking us. I remember when appliances and cars responded to humans, and now humans respond to them. When I grew up cars and home appliances did not go “beep-beep” to remind you of the things you were supposed to do, such as turn off the car lights and take the keys out of the ignition, or turn off the oven and shut the fridge.

Cars, except for British sports cars, didn’t have seat belts. Today a car doesn’t stop beeping until you fasten your seat belts. I hear that soon the cars won’t start until the seat belts are fastened.

When the electric company’s outsourced crew failed to connect the neutral line to my house and blew out all appliances, sprinkler system, and garage openers, the electric company replaced everything on a prorated depreciated basis that cost me thousands of dollars. The worst part of it is that the new appliances boss me around.

The old microwave would gently beep three times and stop. The new one beeps in the most insistent way—open the door you dumb human right this second, immediately—and keeps on insisting until I obey. The fridge refuses to let me leave it open for cleaning. The oven insists that I open it immediately, despite my habit of cutting the on time short and leaving whatever it is to cook awhile longer in the hot oven.

Here is an explanation of how our electric meters spy on us and pass on the information. to interested parties. https://www.paulcraigroberts.org/2020/01/15/the-digital-revolution-has-destroyed-privacy-and-made-everyone-insecure/

Self-driving cars seem to be our future, and robots are taking our jobs away even faster than global corporations offshored them to Asia.

What exactly is it that humans are going to be good for? Nothing it seems.

Why will we need a driving license when cars drive themselves? If there is an accident, who is to blame? The company that made the car? The company responsible for the softwear? What is the point of car insurance when drivers have no responsibility?

Perhaps it is true that aliens are living among us. Their language is “beep-beep” and they are using our machines and cars to train us, like Pavlov’s dogs, to respond to their command.

I can remember when telephones were a convenience before they became a nuisance. When my land line rings, 95% of the time it is a scam or a telemarketing call, usually robotic. Now, a man will listen to a sexy female voice, for a time, and a woman will listen to a courtly gentleman’s voice, but until sex doll robots catch on, no one wants to listen to a machine’s voice. So why the calls? Why do the telephone companies permit their customers to be scammed and their privacy to be constantly invaded? How do the phone companies benefit from permitting unethical people to destroy the value of phone service?

The same thing, I am told, happens to cell phone users. Recently I finally had to acquire a smart phone, because two people I need to reach only respond to text messages. They refuse to answer any phone, and email is so invaded by scammers, malware, and marketeers that they do not use email. They do not even set up the message system on their cell phones. If you try to call them, you get instead of an answer the message that the person you are attempting to call has not set up their message box.

So there you have it. Except for texting, which can’t (yet) be done with a land line, telephones are a nuisance.

Growing up in Atlanta during the 1940s and into the early 1950s, you could not yourself place a call from your telephone. When you picked up the receiver, an AT&T operator answered and asked: “number please.” You gave her the number, and she rang it and connected you if there was an answer. If you did not know the number, you asked her for information. If you knew the complete name and perhaps the street address, you were provided with the telephone number.

In those halcyon days even in a city such as Atlanta, Georgia, there were party lines. That meant that you shared a telephone line with a neighbor. If you picked up the receiver to make a call through the operator and heard voices speaking, you knew the line was in use and decency required that you hang up immediately. As the talking parties heard the click when you picked up the line, if they didn’t hear the click when you hung up they asked you to get off their call.

In that system, there was no anonymity. Anonymity appeared with dial phones, which allowed you to make your own calls. From a public telephone, the call was not traceable to you. This technology was the beginning of our downfall.

Dial phones, something youths have seen only in antique shops or old movies are still with us in everyday language. We still say “dial the number” when we are punching buttons.

Today thanks to technological “progress,” it is much easier to invade privacy.

Technology is destroying us and the planet. The pollution from technology is phenomenal. 5G itself may do us in. The destruction of privacy, identity, and freedom by the digital revolution is far beyond George Orwell’s imagination. Insouciant humans delight in the gadgets that are turning themselves into unfree people who are under control but who themselves control nothing.

• Category: Science • Tags: Technology 
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John Wear and many other historians including David Irving have shown Churchill and Roosevelt’s guilt for World War II. Suvorov has made a strong case that Stalin also was guilty. https://www.paulcraigroberts.org/2020/01/13/rescuing-the-history-of-world-war-ii-wear-vs-suvorov/

The guilt of these three notwithstanding, it was the allied deception that coerced Germany into the Versailles Treaty that made WWII inevitable. The British economist John Maynard Keynes clearly understood this as did Lenin who described the Versailles Treaty as a bomb waiting to explode Europe, an event of which Soviet Russia intended to take advantage.

Germany did not lose WW I on the battlefield. When the war ended, Germany occupied enemy territory. The war ended when Germany, believing American President Woodrow Wilson’s promise of no territorial loss and no reparations, asked for an armistice. Germany requested an armistice for two reasons: The entry of the US into the war, which brought fresh troops into the conflict, and rebellion at home. German sailors mutinied and leading German cities, such as Cologne and Hamburg established soviets demanding the end of the war and the abdication of the Kaiser. The German military concluded that these conditions precluded a successful continuation of the war.

Once Germany put down her arms, the British used a food blockade to force Germany into accepting the Versailles Treaty that violated President Wilson’s promises or starve. Wilson was unable or unwilling to stand up to the British and French.

Suvorov and many other historians have reported the massive reparations extracted from Germany. Here is Suvorov’s account:

Germany lost “one-eight of its territory with a population of 5,138,000 people. Germany lost all her colonies. All merchant ships with a capacity over 1,600 tons displacement were confiscated, as well as one-half of the merchant ships exceeding 1,000 tons displacement, a quarter of the fishing fleet, and one-fifth of the river fleet. Germany was also required, for the next five years, to build for the Allies merchant ships, totaling 200,000 tons displacement per year. Germany was obligated to supply France with up to 140 million tons of coal, Belgium 80 million tons, and Italy 77 million tons. Also, Germany was required to transfer half of its paints and non-military chemicals and to provide up to a quarter of the future production through 1925. The Allies received the right to use German ports, railroads, and waterways on very beneficial terms. On top of all this, Germany was forced into paying astronomical amounts of retribution.”

Germany was a new nation unified in 1871, and only 47 years later it had ceased to be a sovereign state, denied an army, artillery, tanks, submarines, and aviation, with German arms production placed under international control. The country was dismembered with its territory scattered into France, Denmark, Poland, and Czechoslovakia. The immense economic hardship imposed on the German people by reparations and the abuse of Germans by the Polish and Czech governments produced the rise of Adolf Hitler whose goal was to reunite Germany.

It was the greed and stupidity of England and France, and the weakness of President Wilson, that created the conditions for the personal ambitions of Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin twenty years later.

Corrupt and venal historians blame Germany for starting World War II just as they blame Germany for starting World War I despite the undeniable fact that Germany was the last combatant to mobilize for WW I. Wars have never been started by the last country to mobilize.

Stalin militarized the Soviet economy years before Hitler militarized the German economy. Churchill’s plan to use war as his path to power was put into effect years prior to Hitler’s reunification of Germany. Historians who overlook these facts, are not historians. They are propagandists.

Versailles Treaty: https://www.loc.gov/law/help/us-treaties/bevans/m-ust000002-0043.pdf

• Category: History • Tags: Nazi Germany, World War I, World War II 
Paul Craig Roberts
About Paul Craig Roberts

Paul Craig Roberts has had careers in scholarship and academia, journalism, public service, and business. He is chairman of The Institute for Political Economy.

Dr. Roberts has held academic appointments at Virginia Tech, Tulane University, University of New Mexico, Stanford University where he was Senior Research Fellow in the Hoover Institution, George Mason University where he had a joint appointment as professor of economics and professor of business administration, and Georgetown University where he held the William E. Simon Chair in Political Economy in the Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Dr. Roberts was associate editor and columnist for The Wall Street Journal and columnist for Business Week and the Scripps Howard News Service. He was a nationally syndicated columnist for Creators Syndicate in Los Angeles. In 1992 he received the Warren Brookes Award for Excellence in Journalism. In 1993 the Forbes Media Guide ranked him as one of the top seven journalists in the United States.

President Reagan appointed Dr. Roberts Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Economic Policy and he was confirmed in office by the U.S. Senate. From 1975 to 1978, Dr. Roberts served on the congressional staff where he drafted the Kemp-Roth bill and played a leading role in developing bipartisan support for a supply-side economic policy. After leaving the Treasury, he served as a consultant to the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Department of Commerce.